Webpack multi page Application Architecture Series (4): old jQuery plug-ins can not be lost, how compatible?

::::::: 2020-11-06 01:22:59
webpack multi page application architecture


This article was first published in Array_Huang Technology blog —— Practical first , Without the consent of the author , Do not reprint . Original address :https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000006887523 If you are interested in this series of articles , Welcome to subscribe here :https://segmentfault.com/blog/array_huang

Preface

At present, although the front end is in the stage of blooming flowers ,angular/react/vue Competing for , But after all, it is not yet fully mature , Some needs still depend on our big brother jQuery Of .

Personally, I am right jQuery It's not against , But I am jQuery Ecological stagnation is quite helpless , For example, the famous bootstrap( especially 3 generation ), stay webpack You have to rely on a loader Of , I can't keep up with the times . Besides, ,bootstrap It's not bad , There are some jquery The plug-ins haven't been updated for a year or two , even NPM They're not on the shelves , But they just can't find a substitute for them , The project is in a hurry again , What can I do ?

Don't worry. , Today I'll teach you how to adapt to the old style jQuery plug-in unit .

old-fashioned jQuery Plug ins are and cannot be used directly webpack pack ?

If you put jQuery As a common js Module to load ( Want to use jQuery All the modules of the first require Reuse later ), that , When you load the old jQuery When the plug-in , It often indicates that you can't find jQuery example ( Sometimes it's a hint that you can't find $), Why is this ?

Explain the problem , You have to explain it a little bit jQuery Plug in mechanism :jQuery Plug in is through jQuery Provided jQuery.fn.extend(object) and jQuery.extend(object) These two methods , To mount the methods implemented by the plug-in itself to jQuery( That is to say ) On this object . Traditional citation jQuery And the way to plug-in is to use <script> load jQuery In itself , Then use the same method to load its plug-in ;jQuery Will be able to jQuery Object set as global variable ( Of course, it also includes

and webpack As a build tool that follows the principle of modularity , Naturally, it is necessary to separate the context of each module to reduce the influence between them ; and jQuery It's already adapted to AMD/CMD And so on , let me put it another way , We are require jQuery When , It doesn't actually put jQuery Object set as global variable . Speaking of this , The problem is also obvious ,jQuery Plugins can't find jQuery Object , Because in their respective contexts , There are no local variables jQuery( Because there's no fit AMD/CMD, So there's no corresponding require Statement ), There are no global variables jQuery.

How to be compatible with the old jQuery Plugins ?

There are many ways , Let's take a look at one by one .

ProvidePlugin + expose-loader

First of all, I would like to introduce my most recommended method :ProvidePlugin + expose-loader, Projects in my company , And my personal open source scaffolding project webpack-seed It's all in this way .

ProvidePlugin The configuration of is as follows :

 var providePlugin = new webpack.ProvidePlugin({
$: 'jquery',
jQuery: 'jquery',
'window.jQuery': 'jquery',
'window.$': 'jquery',
});

ProvidePlugin The mechanism is : When webpack Load to some js In the module , There is an undefined name that matches ( The string exactly matches ) Configuration in progress key Of variables , automatically require Configuration in progress value As specified by the js modular .

As in the example above , When an old plug-in uses jQuery.fn.extend(object), that webpack It will automatically introduce jquery( Here I use NPM Version of , I also recommend using NPM Version of ).

in addition , Use ProvidePlugin There's another benefit , Namely , In your own code , Again ! also ! No ! use !require!jQuery! La ! After all, one less sentence is one sentence. Ha ha .

Next up expose-loader, This loader The role of is , Will specify js modular export The variable of is declared as a global variable . Let's take a look expose-loader Configuration of :

/*
Obviously this is a loader Configuration item for , Only a limited amount of space is available
If you don't understand, go to another article in this series 《webpack Multi page application architecture series ( Two ):webpack What are the common parts of configuration ?》:https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000006863968
*/
{
test: require.resolve('jquery'), // this loader The goal of the configuration item is NPM Medium jquery
loader: 'expose?$!expose?jQuery', // The first jQuery Objects are declared as global variables `jQuery`, It is further declared as a global variable through the pipeline `$`
},

You might ask , With ProvidePlugin Why do you need to expose-loader? Good question. , If you have all jQuery Plug ins all use webpack To load , It works ProvidePlugin That's enough ; But the ideal is full , The reality is bone feeling , There are always some needs that can only be used <script> To load the .

externals

externals yes webpack An item in the configuration , Used to put a global variable “ camouflage ” Into some js Modular exports, Like the following configuration :

 externals: {
'jquery': 'window.jQuery',
},

that , When a js The module explicitly calls var $ = require('jquery') When , It will window,jQuery Back to it .

With the above ProvidePlugin + expose-loader On the contrary , The plan is to use <script> Loaded jQuery Satisfy the old-fashioned jQuery The need for plug-ins , Re pass externals Convert it to something that meets the requirements of modularity exports.

I personally don't think much of this practice , After all, that means jQuery Out of the NPM Management of , But some children's shoes have other considerations , For example, in order to speed up the time of each packing jQuery These larger third-party libraries are separated ( Call public directly CDN Third party library ?), It can be regarded as having certain value .

imports-loader

This program is equivalent to the manual version of ProvidePlugin, I used to use requireJS It's the same thing you do when you're doing it , So I started with requireJS Migrate to webpack It's the same way when you use it , Later I learned that there was ProvidePlugin It changed right away .

I won't go into details here , Let's take an example and you can see :

// ./webpack.config.js
module.exports = {
...
module: {
loaders: [
{
test: require.resolve("some-module"),
loader: "imports?$=jquery&jQuery=jquery", // amount to `var $ = require("jquery");var jQuery = require("jquery");`
}
]
}
};

summary

All of the above plans are actually shimming, Not specifically for jQuery, Please draw inferences from one instance and use . in addition , The above scheme is not only for shimming, For example, use ProvidePlugin To write less require, Dig more for yourself , It's fun ~~

Add

misuse externals(2016-10-17 to update )

I have children's shoes. I'm , Said that used my article's plan still prompt $ is not a function, After my careful analysis , Find out :

  1. He used what I recommended ProvidePlugin + expose-loader programme , in other words , He has jquery Packed in .
  2. But he didn't know what to do with it externals:
 externals: {
jquery: 'window.jQuery',
},
  1. But in fact he didn't use it directly <script> To quote jQuery, therefore window.jQuery It's a null.
  2. result , His jquery Plug ins get $ That's it. null 了 .

In this we can see that ,externals It will cover up ProvidePlugin Of .

But there's a problem here ,expose-loader The purpose of this is to set up window.jQuery and window.$, that window.jQuery How could it be null Well ? My guess is :externals stay expose-loader Set it up window.jQuery I've taken it before window.jQuery Value (null) 了 .

Said so much , In fact, the key meaning is , Don't be cheap. Don't be cheap. Don't be cheap ( Important things are to be repeated for 3 times )!

Sample code

Look at this series of articles , With me in Github It's better to eat the scaffold project on ( laugh ):Array-Huang/webpack-seed(https://github.com/Array-Huang/webpack-seed).

Participation of this paper Tencent cloud media sharing plan , You are welcome to join us , share .

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