Implementation of multi platform compilation by using docker buildx

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implementation multi platform compilation using

Use docker buildx Implement multi platform compilation

docker registry api v2 Support more CPU Schema mirroring .

meanwhile harbor v2 It has also been realized. docker registry api v2 Support for .

0x01 Get ready

  • docker Turn on the experimental mode
  • buildx plug-in unit
  • qemu Simulator
  • Linux kernel >= 4.8

linux system kernel

because binfmt_misc Mechanism opening needs to rely on Linux kernel >= 4.8 . therefore , In the face of linux There are certain requirements for system operation and selection .

It is recommended to use Distribution version The operating system that the demoted kernel has met the requirements . Instead of choosing to upgrade the system kernel yourself .

  • ubuntu:18.04 LTS And above
  • debian:10 And above

Reference article :

Turn on the experimental mode

At present buildx It's also an experimental model , If you need support , The following configuration is required

  1. Turn on the experimental mode . modify /etc/docker/daemon.json, increase experimental Field , as follows .
# vi /etc/docker/daemon.json
"experimental": true

install buildx

  1. take buildx Put it in ~/.docker/cli-plugins/ Under the table of contents
ARCH=$(uname -m)
[ "${ARCH}" == "x86_64" ] && ARCH=amd64
[ "${ARCH}" == "aarch64" ] && ARCH=arm64
mkdir -p ~/.docker/cli-plugins
wget -c${BUILDX_VERSION}/buildx-${BUILDX_VERSION}.linux-${ARCH} -O docker-buildx\
&& chmod +x docker-buildx \
&& mv docker-buildx ~/.docker/cli-plugins/

install qemu

Download and install qumu To /usr/bin/qemu-$(uname -m)-static

wget -c${QEMU_VERSION}/qemu-$(uname -m)-static -O qemu-$(uname -m)-static \
&& chmod +x qemu-$(uname -m)-static \
&& mv qemu-$(uname -m)-static /usr/local/bin/qemu-$(uname -m)-static

0x02 example

establish buildx builder

## 1. Create the specified name and the specified platform builder
docker buildx create --use --platform=linux/amd64,linux/arm64 --name localbuilder

### Create random name of Default parameters builder
# docker buildx create --use

establish Dockerfile and bakefile

The directory structure is as follows

# tree
# .
# ├── alpine-bake
# │ └── alpine.Dockerfile
# └── bake.hcl
  • alpine-bake/alpine.Dockerfile
FROM alpine:3.12
  • docker-bake.hcl
group "default" {
targets = ["alpine"]
target "alpine" {
context = "./alpine-bake"
dockerfile = "alpine.Dockerfile"
tags = [""]
platforms = ["linux/amd64", "linux/arm64", "linux/arm/v6", "linux/arm/v7", "linux/s390x"]
## push to registry
output = ["type=registry"]
## pull base image always
pull = true
target "debian" {
context = "./debian-bake"
## default: Dockerfile
# dockerfile = "Dockerfile" 
tags = [""]
platforms = ["linux/amd64", "linux/arm64", "linux/arm/v6", "linux/arm/v7", "linux/s390x"]
## push to registry
output = ["type=registry"]
## pull base image always
pull = true

Use bake compiling

docker buildx bake -f bake.hcl # -f alias to bake

When omitted from the command -f When parameters are , Default bake File for :

  • docker-bake.json
  • docker-bake.hcl
  • docker-compose.yaml

Execution results

Can be in tangx/alpine:buildx-bake-hcl notice , The generated image , Support 5 individual cpu framework .


  • Execution process
# docker buildx bake -f bake.hcl
[+] Building 46.9s (19/19) FINISHED
=> [internal] booting buildkit 3.3s
=> [internal] load build definition from alpine.Dockerfile 0.1s
=> [internal] load .dockerignore 0.1s
=> [linux/arm/v6 internal] load metadata for 13.1s
=> [linux/arm64 internal] load metadata for 10.4s
=> [linux/amd64 internal] load metadata for 13.1s
=> [linux/s390x internal] load metadata for 13.1s
=> [linux/arm/v7 internal] load metadata for 13.1s
=> [linux/amd64 1/2] FROM 6.1s
=> [linux/arm/v7 1/2] FROM 5.9s
=> [linux/arm/v6 1/2] FROM 6.0s
=> [linux/arm64 1/2] FROM 6.1s
=> [linux/s390x 1/2] FROM 6.3s
=> [linux/arm/v7 2/2] RUN echo "TARGETARCH is arm" 0.9s
=> [linux/arm/v6 2/2] RUN echo "TARGETARCH is arm" 0.8s
=> [linux/amd64 2/2] RUN echo "TARGETARCH is amd64" 0.7s
=> [linux/arm64 2/2] RUN echo "TARGETARCH is arm64" 0.5s
=> [linux/s390x 2/2] RUN echo "TARGETARCH is s390x" 0.4s
=> exporting to image 22.9s

Use the command line to perform compilation

# docker buildx build --platform=linux/amd64,linux/arm64 --file alpine-bake/alpine.Dockerfile --tag tangx/alpine:multi-arch --push alpine-bake/

Parameter interpretation

  • docker buildx build : Master and sub commands
  • --platform=linux/amd64,linux/arm64 : perform cpu framework
  • --file : Appoint Dockerfile File and path of . Omission means In the current directory Dockerfile
  • --tag : Mirror name and TAG
  • --push : Complete and push to warehouse
  • alpine-bake : docker context Directory address of .

Execution results

A little

The related documents

  1. buildx
  2. buildx bake
  3. docker

buildx hcl Supported variable values

type Target struct {
Name string `json:"-" hcl:"name,label"`
// Inherits is the only field that cannot be overridden with --set
Inherits []string `json:"inherits,omitempty" hcl:"inherits,optional"`
Context *string `json:"context,omitempty" hcl:"context,optional"`
Dockerfile *string `json:"dockerfile,omitempty" hcl:"dockerfile,optional"`
Args map[string]string `json:"args,omitempty" hcl:"args,optional"`
Labels map[string]string `json:"labels,omitempty" hcl:"labels,optional"`
Tags []string `json:"tags,omitempty" hcl:"tags,optional"`
CacheFrom []string `json:"cache-from,omitempty" hcl:"cache-from,optional"`
CacheTo []string `json:"cache-to,omitempty" hcl:"cache-to,optional"`
Target *string `json:"target,omitempty" hcl:"target,optional"`
Secrets []string `json:"secret,omitempty" hcl:"secret,optional"`
SSH []string `json:"ssh,omitempty" hcl:"ssh,optional"`
Platforms []string `json:"platforms,omitempty" hcl:"platforms,optional"`
Outputs []string `json:"output,omitempty" hcl:"output,optional"`
Pull *bool `json:"pull,omitempty" hcl:"pull,optional"`
NoCache *bool `json:"no-cache,omitempty" hcl:"no-cache,optional"`
// IMPORTANT: if you add more fields here, do not forget to update newOverrides and README.

stay github action Upper use buildx


  1. multiple platforms feature is currently not supported for docker driver

The current mode does not support buildx :

# Start experimental mode 
# ~/docker/daemon.json
"experimental": true
# docker version -f '{{.Server.Experimental}}'
## true
  1. auto-push is currently not implemented for docker driver

The lack of builder

# Create a builder 
docker buildx create --use # a random name
docker buildx create --user --name specified_name # specified name
  1. failed to solve: rpc error: code = Unknown desc = failed to load LLB: runtime execution on platform linux/arm64 not supported

Reference resources qemu-user-static #getting-started Execute the following command . If you return normally , That means success

$ uname -m
$ docker run --rm -t arm64v8/ubuntu uname -m
standard_init_linux.go:211: exec user process caused "exec format error"
$ docker run --rm --privileged multiarch/qemu-user-static --reset -p yes
$ docker run --rm -t arm64v8/ubuntu uname -m

This article is originally contained in the author's personal blog

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