Take you 5 minutes to understand http3

u teeurf8z 2020-11-08 13:52:18
minutes understand http3 http


You Lian HTTP2 I still don't understand , Someone started talking about HTTP3 了 , It's so hot . but HTTP3 There's also a reason to be concerned : It's fast .

1. Long ago

Before talking about the future , Let's talk about reality first .

You know HTTP Do you ? This is defined in 1991 The agreement was made to manage Web Of . Its full name is Hypertext Transfer Protocol , So you can get resources from the web , Web data from Web The server transfers it to your browser . It's based on lower level protocols ——TCP, Here's the point —— And it's stateless . This means that each request is completely independent . Each of the GIF Pictures are all independent on the Internet , This is for these GIF The picture itself is a good thing . But for us , Such a system is a bit fragmented .

The problem is that each request only looks for one file at a time . Create an expensive one each time TCP Connect . Imagine , If you have 10,000 A little trick , What a heavy burden it would be .

I know a lot of people like the pictures I made in my last article , So in order to better explain the protocol mechanism of the Internet , Here I'll make another picture .

 Take you 5 Minutes to understand HTTP3

Although browsers can make six different requests at the same time , however HTTP Still very slow , And it takes a lot of TCP Connect . in addition , We developers don't usually care about this . We like to stuff pages with all kinds of rubbish . For example, huge jQuery library , contain 300 A useless one CSS Style sheets , The end is a transparent 8 Trillion PNG chart .

When Google found out that we were dumping rubbish all over the Internet , And they started a project called SPDY Something. . What is the purpose ? Speed up the Internet, of course .

SPDY It's a norm , It is recommended to continue to use HTTP, But change some rules . By compressing the header 、 Prioritizing and multiplexing requests , It will put all of TCP The request and the connection become separate !

say concretely , When you read HTML when , The browser will see everything you want to ask in the page . then , It can get everything at once , In this way, you can avoid getting one file at a time .

HTTP2 The first draft of is based on SPDY.HTTP2 Soon it was widely adopted , And then everything on the Internet got much faster . today , On the Internet 42.7% Content usage HTTP2.

 Take you 5 Minutes to understand HTTP3

2. About HTTP3

HTTP2 In order to HTTP Based on and changing some rules of the product .HTTP3 So it is with . let me put it another way , After explaining the status quo , I can easily explain what the future looks like .

Google is a geek organization , They will never stop .SPDY Evolved into HTTP2 after , They think it's still not fast enough . therefore , They began to talk about QUIC This project . This is the second project that Google has developed and will be HTTP The formal upgrade technology of the agreement . that , What's special about this Agreement ?

HTTP3 The main improvement is in the transport layer . The transport layer won't have the heavy stuff I mentioned earlier TCP Connected to . Now? , Everything will go UDP.

By the way ,QUIC It means “ Fast UDP Internet Connect ”. This change in the protocol will significantly speed up connection establishment and data transfer . However , although UDP It must be faster 、 It's simpler , But it doesn't have TCP Reliability and error handling capabilities of .

TCP You have to go back and forth many times , To make connections in a square and stable way .UDP Don't worry so much , And it does run fast , The cost is the risk of stability degradation and packet loss . however ,UDP Can greatly reduce the delay in the request . The latency of repeated connections to the same server is almost zero , Because there's no need to go back and forth to establish a connection .

 Take you 5 Minutes to understand HTTP3

HTTP3 yes HTTP2 Reuse and compression of , The agreement is from TCP Change to UDP. then , Those people at Google have added layers they've made to the agreement , To ensure stability 、 Packet receiving sequence and security .

therefore ,HTTP3 In maintaining QUIC Use stability at the same time UDP To achieve high speed , At the same time, it won't sacrifice TLS The security of . Yes , stay QUIC in TLS1.3, You can use it to launch elegant SSL. The underlying mechanism of these layers is as follows :

 Take you 5 Minutes to understand HTTP3

2018 year ,QUIC Evolved into HTTP3. Internet Engineering Task Force (Internet Engineerring Task Force) The group of people who made the internet protocol agreed to the proposal . That's good news , Because for us impatient people , The Internet is never fast enough .

3. Conclusion

HTTP3 Represents a glamorous future , its HTTP The underlying potential has been brought to the best of Google's geeks . At the time of writing , Only 4.6% Of the Internet content in use HTTP3, But that number is likely to grow a lot in the next few years . This article only talks about the knowledge in this respect , But if you want to know more , There are many articles on the Internet for your reference .

Link to the original text :http://suo.im/5yhSj1

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