[kubernetes learning notes] - using minikube to quickly deploy k8s single machine learning environment

It fat 2020-11-09 23:48:33
kubernetes learning notes using minikube


Minikube For fast local setup Kubernetes Single node cluster environment , It does not require too much hardware resources , It is convenient for developers to learn and try , Or daily development .

It supports most of kubernetes The function of , The list is as follows

  • DNS
  • NodePorts
  • ConfigMaps and Secrets
  • Dashboards
  • Container Runtime: Docker, and rkt
  • Enabling CNI (Container Network Interface)
  • Ingress
  • ...

Minikube Support Windows、macOS、Linux Three OS, Depending on the platform , Download the corresponding virtual machine image , And install it in the mirror k8s.

The current virtual machine technology is based on Hypervisor To achieve ,Hypervisor A unified virtual layer interface is defined , thus Minikube You can seamlessly switch between different virtual machine implementations , Such as macOS Switchable hyperkit or VirtualBox, Windows You can switch Hyper-V or VirtualBox etc. .

Virtual machine switching can be done through --vm-driver Realization , Such as minikube start --vm-driver hyperkit/ minikube start --vm-driver hyperv

If Minikube Installed in the kernel, it supports LXC Of OS Inside , Such as Ubuntu etc. , Installing the virtual machine again is obviously a waste of resources ,Minikube Provides direct docking OS The way down there

  • driver!=none mode

    In this case minikube provisions a new docker-machine (Docker daemon/Docker host) using any supported providers. For instance: a) local provider = your Windows/Mac local host: it frequently uses VirtualBox as a hypervisor, and creates inside it a VM based on boot2docker image (configurable). In this case k8s bootstraper (kubeadm) creates all Kubernetes components inside this isolated VM. In this setup you have usually two docker daemons, your local one for development (if you installed it prior), and one running inside minikube VM. b) cloud hosts - not supported by minikube

  • driver=none mode

    In this mode, your local docker host is re-used. In case no.1 there will be a performance penalty, because each VM generates some overhead, by running several system processes required by VM itself, in addition to those required by k8s components running inside VM. I think driver-mode=none is similar to " HYPERLINK "https://blog.alexellis.io/be-kind-to-yourself/"kind" version of k8s boostraper, meant for doing CI/integration tests.

Minikube install

download Minikube

curl -Lo minikube https://kubernetes.oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/minikube/releases/v1.13.0/minikube-linux-amd64 && chmod +x minikube && sudo mv minikube /usr/local/bin/

download Kubectl

curl -Lo kubectl https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$(curl -s https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt)/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl && chmod +x kubectl && sudo mv kubectl /usr/local/bin/

start-up Minikube

Launch parameters

Start command :minikube start " Parameters "

- --image-mirror-country cn Will default to use registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers As an installation Kubernetes The container image warehouse of ,
- --iso-url=*** Use Alibaba cloud's image address to download the corresponding .iso file
- --cpus=2: by minikube Virtual machine allocation CPU Check the number
- --memory=2000mb: by minikube The number of memory allocated by the virtual machine
- --kubernetes-version=***: minikube Virtual machines will use kubernetes edition ,e.g. --kubernetes-version v 1.17.3
- --docker-env http_proxy Delivery agent address
The default startup uses VirtualBox drive , Use --vm-driver Parameters can specify other drivers
# https://minikube.sigs.k8s.io/docs/drivers/
- --vm-driver=none It means to use a container ;
- --vm-driver=virtualbox It means virtual machine ;

Be careful : To use kubectl or minikube commands as your own user, you may need to relocate them. For example, to overwrite your own settings, run:

 sudo mv /root/.kube /root/.minikube $HOME
sudo chown -R $USER $HOME/.kube $HOME/.minikube



Reference resources : https://minikube.sigs.k8s.io/docs/drivers/kvm2/

minikube start --image-mirror-country cn --image-repository=registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers --registry-mirror=https://ovfftd6p.mirror.aliyuncs.com --driver=kvm2

# Create based on Hyper-V Of Kubernetes Test environment
minikube.exe start --image-mirror-country cn \
--iso-url=https://kubernetes.oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/minikube/iso/minikube-v1.5.0.iso \
--registry-mirror=https://xxxxxx.mirror.aliyuncs.com \
--vm-driver="hyperv" \
--hyperv-virtual-switch="MinikubeSwitch" \

sudo minikube start --image-mirror-country cn --vm-driver=none


sudo minikube start --vm-driver=none --docker-env http_proxy=http://$host_IP:8118 --docker-env https_proxy=https:// $host_IP:8118

among $host_IP refer to host Of IP, Can pass ifconfig see ; For example, my machine is, use virtualbox Deploy , Start with the following command minikube

sudo minikube start --vm-driver=none --docker-env http_proxy= --docker-env https_proxy=

Minikube Status view

To start over , Will run a single node Kubernetes colony .Minikube Have also put kubectl Good configuration , So you don't have to do extra work to manage the container .
Minikube Create a Host-Only( Host only mode ) Network interface , Through this interface, you can route to nodes . If you want to run with pods or services Interact , You should send traffic through this address . Use minikube ip The command can view this address :


Minikube Use

The user to use Minikube CLI Manage... On virtual machines Kubernetes Environmental Science , such as : start-up , stop it , Delete , Get status, etc . once Minikube Virtual machine start , Users can use familiar Kubectl CLI stay Kubernetes Perform operations on the cluster

# View all the resources in the cluster
kubectl get all
# Enter the node server
minikube ssh
# Execute node server commands , For example, view nodes docker info
minikube ssh -- docker info
# Delete cluster , Delete ~/.minikube Directory cached files
minikube delete
# Shut down the cluster
minikube stop
## Destroy cluster
minikube stop && minikube delete

Minikube plug-in unit

sudo minikube addons list

Minikube Integrated by default Kubernetes Dashboard. perform minikube dashboard After the command , The browser will open by default


Installation problems

problem -1

Failed to save config: failed to acquire lock for /root/.minikube/profiles/minikube/config.json: unable to open /tmp/juju-mk270d1b5db5965f2dc9e9e25770a63417031943: permission denied

terms of settlement :

sudo rm -rf /tmp/juju-mk*
sudo rm -rf /tmp/minikube.*

problem -2

unable to read client-cert /root/.minikube/client.crt for minikube due to open /root/.minikube/client.crt: permission denied
unable to read client-key /root/.minikube/client.key for minikube due to open /root/.minikube/client.key: permission denied
unable to read certificate-authority /root/.minikube/ca.crt for minikube due to open /root/.minikube/ca.crt: permission denied

terms of settlement :

minikube stop
minikube delete
rm -rf ~/.kube
rm -rf ~/.minikube
sudo rm -rf /var/lib/minikube
sudo rm /var/lib/kubeadm.yaml
sudo rm -rf /etc/kubernetes

Reference resources :https://stackoverflow.com/questions/58541104/minikube-wont-work-after-ubuntu-upgrade-to-19-10

problem -3

Error restarting cluster: restarting kube-proxy: waiting for kube-proxy to be up for configmap update: timed out waiting for the condition

adopt minikube delete,minikube start Can solve

Deploy the application

$ kubectl run hello-minikube --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 --port=8080
deployment.apps/hello-minikube created
# To access the application
$ kubectl expose deployment hello-minikube --type=NodePort
service/hello-minikube exposed
# Get service address
$ minikube service hello-minikube --url

Reference material

  1. Minikube - Kubernetes Local experimental environment
  2. Hello Minikube
  3. Running Kubernetes Locally via Minikube
  4. Install Minikube
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