Principle of Linux source code compiling and installing software

Philosophy of life 2020-11-10 16:22:41
principle linux source code compiling

One . About software packages

​ stay linux Installation package is required for software installation in , There are various types of software packages,.rar,.rpm,.tar.gz,.tar. Software package can also be divided into source code package and binary

package , A source code package is a package that has not been compiled , Need to go through GCC、C++ Compiler environment compiles to run . Binary packages do not need to be compiled , It can be installed and used directly . Distinguish whether it is

The source code package or binary package has to be judged based on the files in the software package , contain .h、.c、.cpp、.cc Wait for the end of the source file , Call it a source code package , And the software package contains

stay bin Catalog (bin There are executable files in the directory ), Call it binary package . Source packages are highly customizable , You can freely choose the function you need .

Two . Software compilation process

1. Compile the source code to be available for Linux It takes two steps to run the binaries :

  • ​ Use gcc The compiler compiles the source code into a target file
  • ​ Again using gcc The compiler links the object file into a binary file

The process seems simple , But it is not . The source code of a software is often encapsulated in multiple source files , In addition, these documents have intricate dependencies , Compiling requires strict compliance with the instructions

In a certain order , This undoubtedly increases the difficulty of compiling . Fortunately make Commands can help us simplify the compilation process . The whole compilation process is condensed into Makefile In file ( tell

make Command how to compile and link programs ), When executed make On command ,make Will look in the current directory for Makefile file , And complete the whole according to the requirements of the document

The build process . and Makefile File by configure Command generation . When executed configure On command ,configure According to the current system environment, it will dynamically generate a suitable

Makefile file , for make Command to use .

2.Linux Source code installation steps

  • ​ Get the source code and unzip it
  • ​ see INSTALL And README file : Unzip and check INSTALL And README file , These two files describe the installation method and precautions of the software in detail
  • ​ establish Makefile file : perform configure command , Generate Makefile file
  • ​ compile : perform make clean;make Command to compile the source code into a binary file .PS:make clean The command is used to clear the target file generated by the last compilation , This step is optional , But to ensure the success of the compilation , It's better to add , Prevent compilation failure due to residual object files in the software
  • ​ install : perform make install Command to install the binary file compiled in the previous step to the specified directory

3、 ... and . Compile and install common parameters

# ./configure
a. Specify installation path , for example --prefix=/usr/local/nginx
b. Enable or disable a function , for example --enable-ssl, --disable-filter --with-http_ssl_module
c. Associated with other software , for example --with-pcre
d. Check the installation environment ( Check the dependent external environment ), For example, whether there is a compiler gcc, Whether to meet the software dependency requirements
The resulting :Makefile
# make -j 4 # Press Makefile File compilation , have access to -j 4 Appoint 4 The core CPU compile , Speed up
# make install # Press Makefile Define the file path to install
# make clean # Clear the last time make The command produces object and Makefile file . Use scenarios : When it needs to be re executed configure when , You need to perform make clean
#make uninstall # Remove the installation package , Sometimes the deletion is not clean , So we suggest that when you install , stay configure Step add a : --prefix Parameters . When deleting or backing up in this way , Directly to delete --prefix The specified installation directory operation is OK .

Four . Source code compilation error solution

1. First, compiling software requires a variety of compilers , All kinds of dependency packages , Installing dependency packages before compiling reduces errors . Pay attention to see INSTALL And README file , These two articles

The software installation method and precautions are introduced in detail ;

2. according to ./configure To solve the problem , Install dependent packages if they are missing . If you know that the dependent software name is missing , But I don't know the dependency package , have access to yum

search The software name , See which dependency package belongs to , Then install ;

3. have access to Find the software you need .

5、 ... and . Features of various software installation methods

  • ​ Use yum perhaps rpm Install the software directly : It is easy to operate , The software version is low ( Stable version ), Good stability , Easy to manage , Poor performance ;
  • ​ Source code compilation and installation software : Operation trouble , The software version is new , Can be customized , Slightly less stable , The management is a little poor , Good performance .
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