Data consistency between MySQL and redis

ethenly 2020-11-11 13:00:45
data consistency mysql redis


Keep the database and redis There are roughly two schemes for data consistency of :
One : So let's delete the cache , Update the database

The reason why this plan will lead to inconsistencies is that . There is also a request A Update operation , Another request B Query operation . Then the following will happen :

  • 1) request A Write operation , Delete cache
  • 2) request B Query found cache does not exist
  • 3) request B Go to the database to query for the old value
  • 4) request B Write the old value to the cache
  • 5) request A Writes the new value to the database

This leads to inconsistencies . and , If you do not use the cache expiration policy , The data is always dirty .

Solution : Adopt the strategy of delay double deletion

Two : Update the database first , Delete the cache

Suppose there are two requests , A request A Do query operation , A request B Do update operation , So this is going to happen

  • 1) The cache just failed
  • 2) request A Query the database , Get an old value
  • 3) request B Writes the new value to the database
  • 4) request B Delete cache
  • 5) request A Writes the old value found to the cache

ok, If this happens , Dirty data does happen

There is a congenital condition for this to happen , It's the steps (3) Write database operations than steps (2) The read database operation takes less time , It's possible to make steps (4) Before the steps (5). But , Think about it , Database reads are much faster than writes ( Why else do read and write separation , The point of doing read/write separation is because the read operation is faster , Less resources ), So step (3) It takes more time than steps (2) shorter , It's very difficult for this to happen .

3、 ... and : The best solution :

Scheme 1

Let me give you an explanation , In theory , Set the expiration time for the cache , Is a solution that guarantees ultimate consistency . Under this scheme , We can set an expiration time for the data stored in the cache , All writes are subject to the database , Just do your best for the cache operation . That is, if the database write succeeds , Cache update failed , So just reach the expiration time , The subsequent read requests will naturally read the new value from the database and backfill the cache .

Option two

Redis The data in it is always up to date , But there's a background update task (“ Timing code ” perhaps “ Queue driven code ) Read db, Cram the latest data into Redis. This approach will Redis See as “ Storage ”. Visitors don't know the actual data source behind it , Only know Redis It's the only place where you can get data . When the actual data source is updated , Background update task to update data to Redis. There will still be Redis Inconsistency with the actual data source . If it's a timed mission , The longest inconsistent duration is the execution interval of the update task ; If it's a queue like update , So the inconsistent time depends on the delay of queue generation and consumption . Common queues ( Or equivalent ) Yes Redis( Why is it still Redis),Kafka,AMQ,RMQ,binglog,log file , Ali's canal etc. .

Be careful , There is no such thing as the best solution , We choose different solutions for different business scenarios , It's not likely to be perfect

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