Prototype pattern of Java design pattern

A calf carrying a load 2020-11-11 22:15:13
prototype pattern java design pattern

The definition of prototype patterns :

A prototype pattern refers to a prototype instance that specifies the type of object to be created , And create new objects by copying these prototypes , It belongs to the creative design pattern . The core of the prototype pattern is to replicate the prototype object .

With an object prototype that already exists in the system , Copy directly from memory binary stream , No need to go through the time-consuming process of object initialization , Performance will be greatly improved .

Application scenario of prototype mode :

  • It costs a lot to create objects , Need to optimize resources .
  • Creating an object requires tedious data preparation or permission access , Need to improve performance or security .
  • This kind of object is widely used in the system , And each caller needs to reassign its properties .

analysis JDK Shallow clone API The problems brought about by :

stay java Provided API in , There is no need to manually create an abstract prototype interface ,java Built in Cloneable Abstract prototype interface , Custom types only need to implement the interface and override Object.clone The method can be completed

A reproduction of this class .

By looking at JDK Source code discovery for , Actually Cloneable Is an empty interface .java The reason for offering Cloneable Interface , Just to notify at run time java Virtual machines can be safely used on this class clone

Method . If not Cloneable Interface , call clone() Method will throw CloneNotSupportedException abnormal .


  If you use clone() Method , The following conditions need to be met :

  1. For any object o, There are o.clone() != o, In other words, the cloned object and the original object are not the same object .
  2. For any object o, There are o.clone().getClass() == o.getClass(), In other words, the cloned object is of the same type as the original object .
  3. For any object o, Should have o.clone().equals(o) establish , Why is this not absolute , Because if you don't rewrite hashcode and equals Under the circumstances , There is no guarantee of two objects equals equal .

So in java What's the problem with medium to shallow cloning , See the following example :

Create a User class , And rewrite clone Method :

package com.liuyi.designmode.creational.prototype;
import lombok.Data;
import java.util.List;
* @ClassName User
* @description:
* @author:liuyi
* @Date:2020/11/11 20:55
public class User implements Cloneable{
private Integer id;
private String name;
private List<String> phoneList;
/* *
* @Author liuyi
* @Description //TODO Rewrite the shallow cloning method
* @Date 2020/11/11 21:11
* @Param []
* @return com.liuyi.designmode.creational.prototype.User
protected User clone(){
try {
return (User) super.clone();
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
return null;

Create an object , And then clone an object , Then modify the corresponding attribute value :

package com.liuyi.designmode.creational.prototype;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;
* @ClassName PrototypeTest
* @description:
* @author:liuyi
* @Date:2020/11/11 21:04
public class PrototypeTest {
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Create objects 
User user = new User();
user.setName(" that ");
List<String> PhoneList = new ArrayList<>();
// Print the previous object information 
// Clone objects 
User clone = user.clone();
// modify id by 2
// Delete list A value of the object 
// Print respectively 

Let's look at the execution results :


  You can see , I modified the cloned values , Basic data type id Changed the , It doesn't affect the original object , But change the reference type List, Then the value of the original object is changed . This is called shallow copy , This is also

The deadliest problem with shallow cloning . So how to solve this problem , Deep cloning can solve this problem .

Deep cloning using serialization :

Add a deepClone() Method , The code is as follows :

 /* *
* @Author liuyi
* @Description A deep clone
* @Date 2020/11/11 21:40
* @Param []
* @return com.liuyi.designmode.creational.prototype.User
public User deepClone(){
try {
ByteArrayOutputStream bos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(bos);
ByteArrayInputStream bis = new ByteArrayInputStream(bos.toByteArray());
ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(bis);
return (User)ois.readObject();
}catch (Exception e){
return null;

hold clone Method modified to deepClone The results of this method are as follows :


  This modification does not affect the original object , We have achieved our goal .

Advantages of prototype pattern :

  • java The built-in prototype pattern is based on the replication of memory binary streams , In terms of performance, it is more direct than new One object is better .
  • You can use deep cloning to save the state of an object , To use when needed , For example, the history of restoration, a certain state , Can assist in undo operations .

Disadvantages of the prototype pattern :

  • You need to override clone Method to achieve .
  • clone Inside the class , Modify if necessary , You need to modify the code , Against the principle of opening and closing .
  • When it comes to deep cloning , You need to write complex code , And when objects are nested multiple times , Deep cloning is required for every layer of objects , It's more difficult to realize .


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