This article will start with the choice of virtual machine 、 install 、Linux System installation 、SSH The client tool uses four aspects to describe in detail Linux How to install and use the system in virtual machine , For your normal use under the virtual machine Linux Escort .
1、 Choice of virtual machine
Before we talk about the choice of virtual machine , Let's first understand what a virtual machine is ：
virtual machine （Virtual Machine） It refers to the function of complete hardware system simulated by software 、 A complete computer system running in a completely isolated environment . The work that can be done in the physical computer can be realized in the virtual machine . When creating a virtual machine in a computer , Part of the hard disk and memory capacity of the physical machine should be taken as the hard disk and memory capacity of the virtual machine . Each virtual machine has its own CMOS、 Hard disk and operating system , The virtual machine can be operated as if it were a physical machine .
Generally, we install virtual opportunity options VMware or VirtualBox, They can be installed as virtual machine software Linux, But the two are different . It mainly includes the following three aspects .
1： Charging and open source （ The biggest difference ）
1、VMware：VMware It's commercial software , Rechargeable , And it's closed source . If you don't want to spend money to buy , Of course, you can also find the cracked version to use , I've used this before , However, there are many problems in the cracked version , Such as security issues , Update questions , Functional issues , Use of . So it's not recommended to use the cracked version .
2、Virtual Box：Virtual Box It's free. , It's open source. .
2： Installation file size and installation process
1、VMware：VMware The installation file is very large , Currently in 300MB about , And the installation process is troublesome , And it's in English , If you don't have any knowledge of English , Want to install it well , There's a lot of difficulty ！
2、Virtual Box：Virtual Box The installation file for is in 100MB about , Than VM Less 200MB, A very small . And during installation , It's Chinese. , It's fast and easy to install , Even friends who have never been in touch with virtual machines , There's no need to worry about the problem of not being able to install .
3： Function and performance
1、VMware：VMware It's very versatile , Very powerful . If you have a special purpose , If you need a specific function ,VMware It's definitely your choice . Of course! , It's so powerful , The configuration requirements for physical hosts are also very high , It is too laggy to use . Performance aspect , I said that before , It requires high configuration . therefore , If used in high configuration , It's pretty good . But if it's used in medium and low configurations , Not ideal , It is too laggy. .（ It's mainly memory consumption ）
2、Virtual Box：Virtual Box It doesn't have the function of VMware More , But for the average person , It's enough . It's not like what the Internet says , Dragging files from a virtual machine to a physical machine is not supported , Maybe it didn't work before , But now the version has this function , In use and VM About the same . Performance aspect , It's also very good , Whether it's the middle and low end configuration , Or high-end configuration , Can be used very smoothly , But one thing to say is , It's kind of time consuming CPU.
This article USES VirtualBox To install Linux.
2、 Virtual machine installation
VirtualBox Is an open source virtual machine software , from Sun Company produce , Now it's up to Oracle Development .VirtualBox The best free virtual machine software , It has excellent performance and is easy to use . Virtual systems include Windows、Linux、MacOS、Android Isooperating system ！ This article will use VirtualBox Install as a virtual machine Linux System .
- Let's download VirtualBox Installation package , Download address ：https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
- After downloading, double-click to run the installation package and click next ：
- You need to customize the installation path ：
- All the way to the default operation, the next step , Finally, click finish , Complete the installation .
2.2、 Create a virtual machine
- Create a Linux virtual machine ：
- Allocate virtual machine memory size , It can be determined according to the configuration of your own computer ：
- Create a virtual hard disk ：
Set the virtual hard disk file type , Choose here VDI Format ：
Choose the dynamic allocation space size , If your hard disk space is large , You can choose a fixed size ：
- Set the location and size of the virtual hard disk ：
- single click “ establish ”, Create success , As shown in the figure below .
CentOS（Community Enterprise Operating System） yes Linux One of the releases , Community enterprise operating system . It's from the Business Edition Red Hat Enterprise Linux Compiled from the source code released according to the open source code , So it's highly stable and completely open source . This article will be CentOS 7.6 For example Linux Installation of the system .
- Download address ：http://vault.centos.org/7.6.1810/isos/x86_64/
- Download the file ：CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso
- Add virtual disc for virtual machine , The virtual disc is designated for our download ISO Image file ：
- Click start to run virtual machine ：
- After successful operation , choice
Install CentOS 7Installation ：
- Choose the language of the system during installation , Suggested choice
- Part of the diagram that needs to be set ：
- Time zone settings , Regional choice
Asia, City selection
- Language support choose to install English 、 Simplified Chinese two language installation package ：
- Software installation settings selection
Server with GUI, At the same time, select three additional environments as shown in figure ：
- Partition settings , Because the memory of my virtual machine is small , You need to create a larger
swapPartition , If the memory setting is large, select automatic partition directly , Here we use manual partitioning ：
- Conduct manual partition operation as shown in the figure ;
A description of several directories of the partition ：
- /： Root partition ;
- swap： Swap partition , Can be used as virtual memory ;
- /boot： Storage system boot information and kernel information ;
- /usr： Storage system application software installation information ;
- /var： Storage system log information .
Network settings , Set the host name and perform network activation ：
- single click
Begin InstallationInstallation ：
- During installation, you can set
rootUser's password ;
- Reboot after installation to access system , The first boot requires agreement and configuration ：
- At this time, the host cannot directly access the virtual machine , You need to change the network mode of the virtual machine to the bridging mode .
If the connection mode in the figure above is set to ： After bridging the NIC , No corresponding... Was found in the interface name , Please install as follows .
without , Just click “ install ” Button , choice “ service ”, As shown in the figure below .
single click “ add to (A)...” Button , Select from “ Disk installation ”, find virtualbox A file in the directory 【VBoxNetLwf.inf】
As shown in the figure below , single click “ determine ” You can install it successfully .
Xshell Is a SSH Connect client tools , It can be used for remote operation Linux System .Xshell Free for families and schools , Provide a valid email , The download link will be sent to your email .
- Free version application address ：https://www.netsarang.com/zh/free-for-home-school/
- Download and install complete Xshell in the future , stay Linux Open the command line in the system ：
ifconfigCommand acquisition IP Address ;
- After the acquisition is completed, pass Xshell Connect , And enter the account number and password ：
- After the connection, you can use it remotely Linux The system .
5、 Other related
5.1、 Modify the default boot mode
If you don't want to start the graphical interface by default , You can change the default startup mode , Because the graphical interface still takes up more memory , The commands are as follows .
# Change the default level to multi-user text mode systemctl set-default multi-user.target # Change the default level to Gui mode systemctl set-default graphical.target # restart reboot
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