Java Microservices can be like Go Is it as fast as microservice ?

This is a question that I have been thinking about recently .

last year 8 In the the Oracle Groundbreakers Tour 2020 LATAM At the conference ,Mark Nelson and Peter Nagy I've done a series of basic tests to compare . Next, let's introduce .

In the circle of programmers , The general view is Java The old 、 slow 、 boring , and Go yes fast 、 new 、 cool

In order to do a relatively fair test as much as possible , They use a very simple micro service , There is no external dependency ( Like databases ), The code path is very short ( Just manipulating strings ), Using a small 、 Lightweight framework (Helidon for Java and Go tool kit for Go), Tested different versions of Java And different jvm.

A duel between the two

Let's take a look at the players on both sides of the challenge arena first :

  • The player in the dark suit is JAVA

Java It was acquired by Oracle Sun Microsystems Developed . its 1.0 The version is 1996 Published in , The latest version is 2020 Year of Java15. The main design goal is Java Portability of virtual machines and bytecodes , And memory management with garbage collection . It's one of the most popular languages in the world , Develop in an open source environment .

Let's take a look first JAVA The problem of , It is generally believed that its biggest problem is its slow speed , It's so slow that it's no longer reasonable , It's more historic . But over the years ,Java There are a lot of different garbage collection algorithms to speed it up .

Oracle The lab has recently developed a new Java virtual machine GraalVM, It has a new compiler and some exciting new features , For example, to be able to Java Convert bytecode to a native image , It can be done without javavm And so on .

  • And its rivals are young and energetic GO

GO It's by Robert of Google · Grimmer 、 Rob · Parker and Ken · Created by Thomson . They are for UNIX、B、C、Plan9、UNIX Window system, etc .GO It's open source. , stay 2012 Years issued 1.0 edition ( Than JAVA late 16 year ), stay 2020 Years issued 1.15 edition . In terms of adoption , Or in terms of the language and tool ecosystem itself , It's all growing fast .

GO suffer C、Python、JavaScript and C++ And other languages . Designed to be the best language for high performance networks and multiprocessing .

StackOverflow Yes 27872 Strip “Go” The problem of , and Java Only 1702730 individual . It shows that the waves behind push the waves ahead .

Go Is a statically typed compilation language . It has a name goroutines The lightweight process ( These are not OS Threads ), There is a unique communication channel between them ( Typed ,FIFO).Go It's a lot of CNCF Preferred language for the project , for example Kubernetes、Istio、Prometheus and Grafana

Pre match comparison

Personally speaking ,Go comparison JAVA Come on , The advantage is :

  • Go Easier to achieve composite 、 Pure function 、 Constant state and other functional modes .
  • Go Early in the life cycle , So it doesn't have the heavy burden of backward compatibility —Go It's still easy to break some restrictions to improve .
  • Go Compile into a native statically linked binary - There is no virtual machine layer - Binaries have everything you need to run a program , This is for “ Start from scratch ” It's very good for the container .
  • Go Small volume 、 Fast start 、 Fast execution ( Right now, yes )
  • Go No, OOP, Inherit , Generic , Assertion , Pointer algorithm
  • Go Less parentheses in writing
  • Go There is no circular dependence 、 There are no unused variables or imports 、 There is no coercion for implicit type conversion
  • Go Much less boilerplate code

The disadvantage is that :

  • Go The tool ecosystem is not yet mature , Especially dependency management —— There are several options , None of them are perfect , Especially for non open source development ; There are still compatibility challenges .
  • Building a new environment / The code for updated dependencies is very slow ( such as Maven The famous “ download Internet” problem )
  • Import binds code to the repository , This makes moving code in the repository a nightmare .
  • debugging 、 Evaluation is still a challenge
  • With the pointer
  • We need to implement some basic algorithms
  • There are no dynamic links
  • There are not many knobs to tune execution or garbage collection 、 Profile execution or optimization algorithm .

The game begins

Use JMeter To run the load test . These tests call these services many times , And collect information about the response time 、 throughput ( Transactions per second ) And memory usage data . about Go, Collect resident set size ; about Java, Track native memory .

Before the measurement , Use 1000 A service call heats up the application .

The source code of the application itself and the definition of the load test are all in this GitHub Repository :

The first round

In the first round of testing , At one “ small ” Tests were carried out on the machine , Is a 2.5GHz Dual core Intel core i7 laptop ,16GB Memory runs macOS. The test runs 100 Threads , Each thread has 10000 Cycle , The rise time is 10 second .Java The application runs in JDK11 and Helidon2.0.1 On . Use Go 1.13.3 Compilation of Go Applications .

give the result as follows :

It can be seen that , The first round is Go Win. !

JAVA Too much memory ; Preheat right JVM It has a great influence — We know JVM It is optimized at run time , So it makes sense

On the basis of the first round , What's more GraalVM Image to make Java The execution environment of the application is closer to Go Application environment , Added GraalVM Image testing ( use GraalVM EE 20.1.1ー JDK 11 Built native image ) The result is :

By using GraalVM Image in JVM Run the application on , We don't see any substantial improvement in throughput or response time , But the memory footprint does get smaller .

Here's a response time graph of some tests :

The second round

In the second round of testing , Run the test on a larger machine .36 nucleus ( Two threads per core )、256GB Memory 、 function oraclelinux7.8 Machine .

Similar to the first round , Used 100 Threads , Each thread uses 10,000 Cycle ,10 Second acceleration time , And the same version Go,Java,Helidon and GraalVM.

give the result as follows :

This round is GraalVM The image won !

Here's a response time graph of some tests :

In this test ,Java The variants perform much better , And it's not in use Java In the case of logging , Its performance is much better than that Go.Java It seems to be more able to use the multi-core and execution thread provided by hardware ( And Go comparison ).

The best performance of this round comes from GraalVM native image, The average response time is 0.25 millisecond , Transactions per second 82426 individual , and Go The best results are as follows 1.59 Milliseconds and 39227 individual tps, However, it costs two orders of magnitude more memory !

GraalVM Image ratio in jvm The same application running on is about 30–40%!

The third round

This time, , Competition in Kubernetes Running these applications in a cluster , This is a more natural microservice runtime environment .

This time, one was used Kubernetes 1.16.8 colony , It has three working nodes , Each node has two cores ( Each kernel has two execution threads )、14GB Of RAM and oraclelinux7.8.

Application access is via Traefik The entrance controller performs the following functions ,JMeter stay Kubernetes Running outside the cluster , For some tests , For other tests , Use ClusterIP And run in the cluster JMeter.

Same as the previous test , We used 100 Threads , Each thread uses 10,000 Cycle , as well as 10 Second acceleration time .

Here are the sizes of the various containers :

  • Go 11.6MB 11.6 MB
  • Java/Helidon 1.41GB 1.41 GB
  • Java/Helidon JLinked 150MB 150mb
  • Native image 25.2MB 25.2 MB

give the result as follows :

Here's a response time graph of some tests :

In this round , We observed that Go Sometimes faster ,GraalVM Images are sometimes faster , But the difference between the two is very small ( Usually less than 5%).

Java Seem to be more than Go Better at using all the available kernels / Threads — We are Java Better results were seen in the tests CPU utilization .Java Performance is better on machines with more cores and memory ,Go The performance is small / It's better on a weaker machine . At one “ Production scale ” On the machine ,Java It's easy to talk to her Go As fast as , Or faster


There's going to be more test games coming up , Let's see who's better ! If you are interested, you can try it yourself , Remember to tell us the result !

In this paper, the reference :

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