Spring boot integrated junit5, elegant unit test!

Java technology stack 2021-01-20 21:45:01
spring boot integrated junit5 junit


author : Seaward
source :www.cnblogs.com/haixiang/p/13812363.html

Why use JUnit5

  • JUnit4 Widely used , But in many scenarios, the syntax is cumbersome ,JUnit5 Chinese support lambda expression , The syntax is simple and the code is not redundant .
  • JUnit5 Easy to expand , Inclusive , Access to other test engines .
  • It's more powerful and provides a new assertion mechanism 、 Parametric testing 、 New features like repeatability testing .
  • ps: Why do developers test , Is it necessary to standardize test writing ? In fact, single test is a necessary skill for developers , It's just that a lot of developers are too busy with their development tasks, so they don't care after debugging , There is no systematic unit test , Unit testing can play an important role in system reconfiguration , After refactoring, you can quickly test whether the new interface is different from that before refactoring .

brief introduction

Pictured ,JUnit5 The structure is as follows :

  • JUnit Platform: This is a Junit The platform function module provided , Through it , Other test engines can be accessed Junit Implementing interfaces and executing .
  • JUnit JUpiter: This is a JUnit5 At the heart of , It's based on JUnit Platform The implementation of the engine , It contains a wealth of new features to make automated testing more convenient and powerful .
  • JUnit Vintage: This module is compatible with JUnit3、JUnit4 Version of the test engine , So that the old version of automated testing can also be in JUnit5 Under normal operation .

Depend on the introduction of

We use SpringBoot2.3.1 For example , Introduce the following dependencies , Prevent the use of old junit4 We exclude the dependency of related interfaces .

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
<exclusions>
<exclusion>
<groupId>org.junit.vintage</groupId>
<artifactId>junit-vintage-engine</artifactId>
</exclusion>
</exclusions>
</dependency>

Commonly used annotations

  • @BeforeEach: Execute every unit test method before it is executed
  • @BeforeAll: Execute each unit test method before it is executed ( Only once )
  • @DisplayName(" Product warehousing test "): Used to specify the name of the unit test
  • @Disabled: The current unit test is set to invalid , That is to skip the unit test
  • @RepeatedTest(n): Repeatability test , The perform n Time
  • @ParameterizedTest: Parametric testing ,
  • @ValueSource(ints = {1, 2, 3}): Parametric testing provides data

Assertion

JUnit Jupiter Provides powerful assertion methods to validate results , In use, we need to use java8 New features lambda expression , All from org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions Bag static Method .

assertTrue` And `assertFalse` It is used to judge whether the condition is true or not `true` or `false
@Test
@DisplayName(" Test assertion equals")
void testEquals() {
assertTrue(3 < 4);
}

assertNull And assertNotNull It is used to judge whether the condition is true or not ·null

@Test
@DisplayName(" Test assertion NotNull")
void testNotNull() {
assertNotNull(new Object());
}

assertThrows It is used to determine whether the exception thrown by the execution meets the expectation , And you can use the exception type to receive the return value for other operations

@Test
@DisplayName(" Test assertion throw exception ")
void testThrows() {
ArithmeticException arithExcep = assertThrows(ArithmeticException.class, () -> {
int m = 5/0;
});
assertEquals("/ by zero", arithExcep.getMessage());
}

assertTimeout Used to determine whether the execution process has timed out

@Test
@DisplayName(" Test assertion timeout ")
void testTimeOut() {
String actualResult = assertTimeout(ofSeconds(2), () -> {
Thread.sleep(1000);
return "a result";
});
System.out.println(actualResult);
}

assertAll It's a combination assertion , When all the internal assertions are executed correctly, it will be considered as passed

@Test
@DisplayName(" Test combination assertion ")
void testAll() {
assertAll(" test item Order goods ",
() -> {
// Simulate user balance deduction 
assertTrue(1 < 2, " Lack of balance ");
},
() -> {
// simulation item Database deducting inventory 
assertTrue(3 < 4);
},
() -> {
// Simulate the flow of trading 
assertNotNull(new Object());
}
);
}

Repeatability test

In many scenarios, we need to test the same interface method repeatedly , For example, testing idempotent interfaces .

JUnit Jupiter By using @RepeatedTest(n) Specify the number of times to repeat

@RepeatedTest(3)
@DisplayName(" Repeat the test ")
void repeatedTest() {
System.out.println(" call ");
}

Parametric testing

Parametric testing can run multiple unit tests according to multiple parameters, which is a bit similar to repetitive testing , It's just that every time you run, you don't need to . Need to be used @ParameterizedTest, At the same time @ValueSource Provide a set of data , It supports eight basic types and String And custom object types , It's very convenient to use .

@ParameterizedTest
@ValueSource(ints = {1, 2, 3})
@DisplayName(" Parametric testing ")
void paramTest(int a) {
assertTrue(a > 0 && a < 4);
}

Embedded test

JUnit5 Provides nested unit testing capabilities , It can better show the business logic relationship between test classes , We usually have a business corresponding to a test class , Classes with business relationships can actually be written together . This is good for testing . And inline writing can greatly reduce unnecessary classes , Reduce Project , A series of problems, such as preventing class explosion .

@SpringBootTest
@AutoConfigureMockMvc
@DisplayName("Junit5 unit testing ")
public class MockTest {
//....
@Nested
@DisplayName(" Embedded order testing ")
class OrderTestClas {
@Test
@DisplayName(" Cancellation of order ")
void cancelOrder() {
int status = -1;
System.out.println(" Order cancelled successfully , The order status is :"+status);
}
}
}

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