[big data beep set 20210113] hive's dynamic partition and static partition

Big data is fun 2021-01-21 19:58:02
big data beep set hive


Hive Two modes of partitioning are supported in :

• Static partitioning SP(static partition)

• Dynamic partitioning DP(dynamic partition)

The main difference between static partition and dynamic partition is that static partition is manually specified , Dynamic partition is judged by data . In detail , Static partition's column real compile time , Determined by user delivery ; Dynamic partitions are only available in SQL Only when it is carried out can we decide . It's not hard to see. ,Hive Partition is mainly to narrow the scope of data query , Improve query speed and performance .

Dynamic partitioning is disabled by default ( stay hive2.3.4 Version is on by default , Can be in hive-default.xml.template File to configure ), So we need to hive.exec.dynamic.partition Set to true. By default , The user must specify at least one static partition column , This is to avoid accidentally overriding partitions . To disable this restriction , You can set partition mode to non strict mode ( the hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode Set to nonstrict, The default value is strict). You can choose to set it in the terminal mode of the command line :

SET hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true;
SET hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;

Or you can go to hive-site.xml Set as in :

-- Hive Default configuration values -- Turn dynamic partition on or off hive.exec.dynamic.partition=false;-- Set to nonstrict Pattern , Let all partitions be configured dynamically , Otherwise, you need to specify at least one partition value hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=strict;-- Can be mapper or reducer The maximum number of dynamic partitions created , Report an error when exceeding the limit hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode=100;-- One with dynamic partition SQL The maximum number of dynamic partitions that a statement can create , If you exceed it, you will report an error hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions=1000;-- The maximum number of files that can be created globally , adopt Hadoop Counter tracking , If it exceeds, an error will be reported hive.exec.max.created.files=100000; -- Configure according to personal needs set hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true; set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;set hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode=1000;set hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions=10000;set hive.exec.max.created.files=1000000;

Actual demonstration

First we create a table , And import relevant data , As source data .

CREATE TABLE student_data(id STRING, name STRING, year INT, major INT)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',';

Static partitioning

Create a table , Import data into this table in static partition mode .

CREATE TABLE student_static_partition(id STRING, name STRING)
PARTITIONED BY (year INT, major INT)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',';

Use static partitioning , Import all data from the source table into this table :

INSERT INTO TABLE student_static_partition PARTITION(year=2001,major=810)
SELECT id,name FROM student_data WHERE year=2001 AND major=810;
INSERT INTO TABLE student_static_partition PARTITION(year=2001,major=820)
SELECT id,name FROM student_data WHERE year=2001 AND major=820;
INSERT INTO TABLE student_static_partition PARTITION(year=2002,major=810)
SELECT id,name FROM student_data WHERE year=2002 AND major=810;
INSERT INTO TABLE student_static_partition PARTITION(year=2002,major=820)
SELECT id,name FROM student_data WHERE year=2002 AND major=820;

After guiding , Query the partition information of the table :

SHOW PARTITIONS student_static_partition;
+----------------------+--+
| partition |
+----------------------+--+
| year=2001/major=810 |
| year=2001/major=820 |
| year=2002/major=810 |
| year=2002/major=820 |
+----------------------+--+

Dynamic partitioning

Create a table with the same table structure , Ready to import data as a dynamic partition .

CREATE TABLE student_dynamic_partition(id STRING, name STRING)
PARTITIONED BY (year INT, major INT)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',';

Before using dynamic partitioning , You need to configure the same Hive Parameters , The two most important parameters are :

set hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true;
set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;

And then import the data as a dynamic partition :

INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE student_dynamic_partition PARTITION (year, major)
SELECT id,name,year,major
FROM student_data;

Be careful : stay SELECT The fields of the clause should be exactly the same as INSERT And the last PARTITION The fields in are exactly the same , Including the order .

here , We don't need to specify which partition the data will be imported into . This statement automatically creates the corresponding partition , And import the data into the corresponding partition .

After import , View the partition information of the table :

SHOW PARTITIONS student_dynamic_partition
+----------------------+--+
| partition |
+----------------------+--+
| year=2001/major=810 |
| year=2001/major=820 |
| year=2002/major=810 |
| year=2002/major=820 |
+----------------------+--+

Some parameters related to dynamic partitioning are as follows :

-- Hive Default configuration values
-- Turn dynamic partition on or off
hive.exec.dynamic.partition=false;
-- Set to nonstrict Pattern , Let all partitions be configured dynamically , Otherwise, you need to specify at least one partition value
hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=strict;
-- Can be mapper or reducer The maximum number of dynamic partitions created , Report an error when exceeding the limit
hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode=100;
-- One with dynamic partition SQL The maximum number of dynamic partitions that a statement can create , If you exceed it, you will report an error
hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions=1000;
-- The maximum number of files that can be created globally , adopt Hadoop Counter tracking , If it exceeds, an error will be reported
hive.exec.max.created.files=100000;
-- Configure according to personal needs
set hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true;
set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;
set hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode=1000;
set hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions=10000;
set hive.exec.max.created.files=1000000;

This article is from WeChat official account. - Big data is fun (havefun_bigdata)

The source and reprint of the original text are detailed in the text , If there is any infringement , Please contact the yunjia_community@tencent.com Delete .

Original publication time : 2021-01-13

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