Some basic concepts of data structure

SmithBee 2021-01-22 10:03:38
basic concepts data structure


The basic concept of data structure

Whether we are students of computer major or program ape who have been working / Yuan , I can't get around it data structure This technology point , Let's talk about it today .

1. What data structures are learning

  • How to use program code to solve real world problems Promotion of information technology
  • how Use a computer to process efficiently This information creates value

The development of human society , So far, it has experienced and experienced three waves : The first wave was agriculture , From about 1 Ten thousand years ago ; The second wave is the industrial stage , from 17 At the end of the century ; The third wave is the coming information stage . ----《 The third wave (1980 edition )》, alvin · Toffler

An example of informatization :

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All these above , It has covered all aspects of our daily life .

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The only thing that's certain , Tomorrow will surprise all of us .

​ —— alvin · Toffler

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2. Some basic concepts of data structure

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1) Basic concepts

  • data :

    data Is the carrier of information , It's a number that describes the attributes of an objective thing 、 A collection of characters and all symbols that can be input into a computer and recognized and processed by a computer program . Data is the raw material for computer programming .

    image-20210121191732522

​ What the computer can recognize is 0 and 1 Binary number of .

  • data elements 、 Data item :

    data elements It's the basic unit of data , Usually considered and dealt with as a whole .

    A data element can be made up of several Data item form , Data item Is the smallest indivisible unit of data elements .

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  • structure

    The relationship between the elements .

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  • data structure 、 Data objects

    data structure : It's that there's one or more specific things that exist between each other Relationship A collection of data elements of .

    Data objects : Yes. Same nature A collection of data elements of , It's a subset of the data .

    An example of fishing up to the bottom of the sea :

    data structure : Queuing customer information for a particular store and the relationship between them

    image-20210121193458588

    Data objects : Queuing customer information for all stores across the country

    image-20210121193541772

Here is a diagram to show the relationship between these concepts :

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  • data type

    data type Is a collection of values and a set of operations defined on this set .

    • Type of atom : A data type whose value cannot be subdivided .

    image-20210121194401094

    • Structure type : Its value can be further decomposed into several components ( component ) Data type of .

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  • Abstract data types (ADT)

    Abstract data type is the organization of abstract data and its related operations .

2) The three elements of data structure

  1. Logical structure

    The logical relationship between data elements .

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  • aggregate

    Each element belongs to a set , Nothing else .

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  • Linear structure

    There is a one-to-one relationship between data elements , Except for the first element , All elements have a unique Forerunner ; Except for the last element , All elements have a unique The subsequent .

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  • A tree structure

    There is a one to many relationship between data elements .

    image-20210121195710117

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  • The graph structure

    There is a many to many relationship between data elements .

    image-20210121195859714

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  1. Physical structure ( Storage structure )

    A computer represents the structure of logical relationships between data elements .

    image-20210121202305032

  • Sequential storage

    Store logically adjacent elements in a physical location that is also adjacent to each other , The relationship between elements is represented by the adjacency of storage units .

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  • Chain store

    Logically adjacent elements may not be adjacent in physical position , The logical relationship between elements is represented by a pointer indicating the storage address of the element .

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  • Index storage

    While storing element information , Also create additional index tables . Each item in an index table is called an index entry , The general form of an index entry is ( keyword , Address ).

    image-20210121201651198

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  • Hash store

    According to the key words of the element, the storage address of the element can be calculated directly , Also known as hash (Hash) Storage .

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​ The method of calculating hash value will be introduced later

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Another wave of understanding , Blossom

1) If sequential storage is used , Each data element must be physically continuous ; If non sequential storage is used , Then each data element can be physically discrete .

2) The storage structure of data will affect the convenience of storage space allocation .( such as , Someone wants to jump in line )

3) The storage structure of data will affect the speed of data operation .( such as , Trying to find someone )

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  1. The operation of data

    The operations imposed on the data include Definition and Realization . Definition of operation It's about logical structure , Point out the function of operation ; The realization of computation It's about the storage structure , Point out the operation steps .

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​ I'll learn the specific data structure types later , You'll learn to define and implement .

If you want to know more , You can pay attention to the official account of WeChat : Programmers should be like this , Get more quality content .

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