today , We began to Java High concurrency and multithreading , lock .

The last three , Basically speaking about some conceptual and basic things , It's a bit fragmented , But like liberal arts subjects , Just remember .

But this is the real cornerstone of high concurrency , It takes a lot of understanding and practice , One button one ring , Interlocking , It's not hard to , But it needs to be read carefully .

Okay , now .

-------------- The first part , Let's talk about it java The two keywords used to ensure the order between threads --------------


synchronized yes Java One of the most common ways to solve concurrency problems in , It's also the simplest way .

synchronized Can guarantee java Atomicity in code blocks , Visibility and orderliness .

  • Java Visibility in the memory model 、 Atomicity and orderliness


It refers to the visibility between threads , The modified state of one thread is visible to another .


The atom is the smallest unit in the world , It is indivisible
All non atomic operations have thread safety problems , Sometimes we need to use synchronization technology (sychronized) To make it an atomic operation .
java Of concurrent Some atomic classes are provided under the package (AtomicInteger,AtomicLong,AtomicReference......), We'll talk about it later .


java Language provides volatile and synchronized Two keywords to ensure the order of operations between threads ;
volatile It itself contains " Disable instruction reordering " The semantics of the .

synchronized You can put any non null Object as " lock ".

synchronized There are three ways of using :

- When synchronized When acting on an example method , Monitor lock (monitor) Object instance (this);

- When synchronized When acting on a static method , Monitor lock (monitor) It's the object Class example , because Class Data exists in the permanent generation , So a static method lock is equivalent to a global lock of this class ;

- When synchronized When acting on an object instance , Monitor lock (monitor) It's an example of an object enclosed in parentheses ;

In general ,synchronized The scope of synchronization is as small as possible .

Because if it takes a long time , Then other threads must wait until the lock holding thread is finished .

if synchronized Method throws an exception ,JVM Will automatically release the lock , It doesn't cause deadlock problems .

When locking objects , You can't use String Constant , And basic types and encapsulation classes of basic types .

When objects are locked , To add final, Otherwise, the lock object changes , It could cause problems .


Java Language provides a weak synchronization mechanism , namely volatile Variable , Used to ensure that updates to variables are notified to other threads .

volatile Variable ensures the visibility of different threads when operating on this variable , That is, a thread changes the value of a variable , This new value is immediately visible to other threads .

from volatile When modifying variables, you will use the shared variables CPU Provided Lock Prefix instruction .

  1. Write the data of the current processor cache row back to system memory ;
  2. This write back operation will Tell me in other CPU The variables you get are invalid , The next time you use it, take it from the shared memory again .

When right and wrong volatile When variables are read and written , Each thread copies variables from memory to CPU In cache . If you have multiple computers CPU, Each thread may be in a different CPU Be dealt with on , This means that each thread can copy to a different CPU cache in .

When variables are declared as volatile After the type , Both compiler and runtime will notice that this variable is shared , Therefore, operations on this variable will not be reordered along with other memory operations .

volatile Variables are not cached in registers or invisible to other processors ,JVM Ensure that every time the variable is read from memory , skip CPU cache  This step , So reading volatile A variable of type always returns the most recently written value .

During a visit to volatile The lock operation is not performed on a variable , So the thread will not block execution , therefore volatile Variable is a kind of ratio sychronized Keyword more lightweight synchronization mechanism .

volatile The read performance consumption of is almost the same as that of ordinary variables , But the write operation is slower , Because it needs to insert many memory barrier instructions into the local code to ensure that the processor does not execute in disorder .

By volatile Modify the variable in the write operation , Will generate a special assembly instruction , This command triggers mesi agreement 「 Cache consistency protocol 」, There will be a bus sniffer mechanism , In short, this mechanism will constantly detect the change of the variable in the bus , If the variable changes , Because of this sniffing mechanism , Other cpu The value of the variable will be changed immediately cpu The cache data is emptied , Get this data from main memory again .

volitale Try to decorate simple types , Don't embellish reference types , because volatile Keyword changes to the basic type can be read consistently to multiple threads later , But for reference types such as arrays , Entity bean, Just make sure the visibility of references , But it doesn't guarantee the visibility of references .

Ensure thread visibility ;(MESI/CPU Cache consistency protocol for )

Disable instruction reordering .

laodfence Source language instruction

storefence Source language instruction

Double check in singleton mode , To add volatile.( The main reason is that the initialization order of the instance may be changed , In this way, the second thread may access the uninitialized instance ).

However, the above situation can only appear in the case of super high concurrency , In general, it is very difficult to appear , It's written here , It's for the students preparing for the interview .

  • synchronized and volatile

volatile The essence is to tell jvm Current variable in register ( The working memory ) The value in is uncertain , Need to read from main memory ;

synchronized Lock the current variable , Only the current thread can access this variable , Other threads blocked .

volatile Can only be used at variable level ;

synchronized You can use the 、 Method 、 And class level .

volatile Only variable modification visibility can be achieved , Atomicity is not guaranteed ; and synchronized It can ensure the visibility and atomicity of the variables .

volatile No thread blocking ;synchronized May cause thread blocking .

volatile Tagged variables are not optimized by the compiler ;synchronized Tagged variables can be optimized by the compiler .

-------------- The second part , Let's talk about all kinds of locks that are full of blogs --------------

【 Pessimistic locking · Optimism lock 】

  • Pessimistic locking

Always assume the worst , Every time you use data, you think someone else will modify it , So every time I get the data, I lock it .

So people who want to take this data will block it until it gets the lock ( Shared resources are used by only one thread at a time , Other threads are blocking , Transfer resources to other threads after use ).

There are many lock mechanisms used in traditional relational databases , For example, line locks. , Table lock, etc. , Read the lock , Write locks, etc. , It's all locked before the operation .

Java in synchronized and ReentrantLock Waiting for exclusive lock is the realization of pessimistic lock thought .

  • Optimism lock

Always assume the best , Every time I go to get the data, I think other people won't modify it , So it won't lock , But in the process of updating, we will judge whether other people have updated this data during this period , You can use the version number mechanism and CAS Algorithm implementation .

Optimistic lock is suitable for multi read applications , This can improve throughput , Similar to what the database provides write_condition Mechanism , In fact, they are all optimistic locks .

stay Java in java.util.concurrent.atomic The atomic variable class under the package is an implementation of optimistic lock CAS Realized .

The optimistic lock applies to Write less about , Because it saves a lot of lock overhead , But if you write more , May cause frequent retry operation , Instead, it reduces performance .

ABA problem , After two revisions , The actual value has been modified , But it didn't recognize .「 Also consider the citation , Although the pointer doesn't change , But the citation has changed 」

ABA problem ( The main problem is that there will be problems with the object , The basic type doesn't matter , You can add Version solve )

  • What is? CAS?

Compare and Swap, That is, compare and then exchange

Yes CAS The understanding of the ,CAS It's a lock free algorithm ,CAS Yes 3 Operands , Memory value V, Old expectations A, New value to modify B.

If and only if expected A And memory values V Phase at the same time , Put the memory value V It is amended as follows B, Otherwise, do nothing .

CAS The realization of depends on CPU The primitive language supports ( There's no interruption ).

If it's not equal , The shared data has been modified , Give up what you have done , Then do the operation again .

When there are few opportunities for synchronization conflicts , This assumption can lead to a large performance improvement .

  • Unsafe

Let's talk about this class briefly .

Java No direct access to underlying operating system , But through local (native) Method to access . But that's all ,JVM Or a back door , That's it Unsafe class , It provides hardware level atomic operations .

be-all CAS It's all used Unsafe To achieve the .

CAS Direct manipulation java The memory in the virtual machine .( You can go directly through the offset , Locate the value of a variable in memory , And then modify )「 That's why cas We can think of it as atomic 」

【 spinlocks 】

Thread blocking and wakeup needs CPU From user state to nuclear state , Frequent blocking and waking up to CPU It's a very heavy job , It will bring a lot of pressure to the concurrent performance of the system .

At the same time, we found that in many applications , The lock state of an object lock lasts only a short period of time , It's not worth it to block and wake up threads frequently for a short period of time .

When a thread tries to acquire a lock , If the lock is occupied by another thread , Just loop through the lock to see if it's released , Instead of going into thread suspend or sleep state .

Spin lock occupied CPU, But no access to the operating system ( Without going through the kernel state ), So it's always user mode .

Spin lock is suitable for the case that the critical area of lock protection is very small , If the critical area is small , The lock takes a short time .

The default number of spins is 10 Time , You can use the parameter -XX:PreBlockSpin To adjust .

【 Adaptive spin lock 】

If the thread spins successfully , So the next spin will be more , Because the virtual machine thinks that since it succeeded last time , So this spin is likely to succeed again , So it allows the spin wait to last a lot more .

conversely , If for a lock , Very few spins succeed , In the future, the number of spins will be reduced or even the spin process will be omitted , To avoid wasting processor resources .

-------------- The third part , Let's elaborate on developers and JVM For the lock of some optimization design and ideas --------------

【 Lock refinement 】

The refinement of locks is mainly divided into two aspects .

First of all ,synchronized The less content locked, the better , So in some cases , It may take some ( For example, section lock ,HASH lock , Weak reference lock, etc ) measures , Improve synchronization efficiency .

second ,synchronized The less code locked, the better , The less code , The longer the critical area is , The less time the lock will wait .

【 Lock coarsening 】

Normally speaking , For developers , The smaller the scope of the locked code, the better , But sometimes , We need to coarsen the lock .

It means to lock multiple consecutive locks 、 Unlock operations are linked together , Expand to a larger range of locks .

A series of continuous lock and unlock operations , May cause unnecessary performance loss .

【 Lock elimination 】

In order to ensure the integrity of the data , During the operation, it is necessary to control this part of the operation synchronously , But in some cases ,JVM No shared data race detected , This is a JVM Meeting Lock elimination of these synchronous locks .

The basis of lock elimination is Data support for escape analysis .

Such as :StringBuffer Of append Method .

StringBuffer.append() The lock is sb object . Virtual machine observation variables sb, It will soon be found that its dynamic scope is limited to concatString() Methods the internal .

That is to say sb All references to will never " The escape " To concatString() Out of the way , Other threads can't access it , So although there's a lock here , But it can be safely removed , After instant compilation , This code will ignore all synchronization and execute directly .

After the escape analysis , All objects will be allocated on the stack , Not from JVM In the memory model .

Escape analysis and lock elimination can use parameters respectively -XX:+DoEscapeAnalysis and -XX:+EliminateLocks( Lock removal must be in -server In mode ) Turn on .

【 Lock escalation 】

For locks , There are four states , No lock state , Biased lock state , Lightweight lock state , Heavyweight lock state .

1. When there is no competition , Bias lock is used by default .

   JVM Make use of CAS operation , On the object header Mark Word Partial setup thread ID, To indicate that this object is biased towards the current thread , So there's no real mutex involved .

2. If another thread tries to lock an object that has been biased ,JVM It needs to be withdrawn (revoke) Biased locking , And switch to lightweight lock implementation .

    Lightweight lock dependency CAS  operation Mark Word To attempt to acquire a lock , If retry is successful , Just use lightweight locks ;

3. Otherwise, it will be further upgraded to heavyweight lock after a certain number of spins .

  • Biased locking

Why introduce biased locks ?

Because after HotSpot The author of a large number of studies found that , Most of the time there is no lock competition , Often a thread gets the same lock multiple times , So if you have to compete for locks every time, it will increase a lot of unnecessary costs , To reduce the cost of acquiring locks , The biased lock introduced .

The deflection lock is in Single threaded execution of code blocks The mechanism used in this process , If in a multithreaded concurrent environment ( Threads A The synchronization code block has not been executed yet , Threads B Initiated a lock application ), It must be converted to a lightweight lock or a heavyweight lock .

Now almost all locks are re entrant , That is, the thread that has obtained the lock can lock many times / Unlock monitored objects .

According to the previous HotSpot Design , Lock every time / Unlocking involves a lot of CAS operation ( For example, the waiting queue CAS operation ),CAS Operations delay local calls ;

So the idea of biased locking is that once the thread gets the monitored object for the first time , And then let's watch the object " deviation " This thread , Subsequent calls can be avoided CAS operation , To put it bluntly, it is to set a variable 「 On the head of the object Mark Word Partial setup thread ID」, If it's found to be true You don't have to go through all kinds of locking / Unlock process .

The assumption to do this is based on the fact that in many scenarios , Most objects are locked by at most one thread in their life cycle , Using biased locks can reduce the non contention overhead .

The deflection lock is opened by default , And the start time is usually a few seconds slower than the application starts , If you don't want this delay , Then you can use -XX:BiasedLockingStartUpDelay=0;

If you don't want biased locks , So you can go through -XX:-UseBiasedLocking = false To set up ;

  • Lightweight lock

For most locks , There is no contention throughout the synchronization cycle , Lightweight lock usage CAS operation , Avoid using mutex .

If there is competition , Besides the cost of mutex , also CAS The operation of , Not only is there no promotion , On the contrary, the performance will decline

The scenario that lightweight locks are adapted to is when threads execute synchronization blocks alternately , If there is access to the same lock at the same time , It will inevitably lead to the expansion of lightweight locks into heavyweight locks .

  • Heavyweight lock

Synchronized It's through an internal object called a monitor lock (Monitor) To achieve .

Heavyweight locks don't take CPU.

But the essence of monitor lock depends on the underlying operating system Mutex Lock To achieve .

And the operating system to achieve the switch between threads, which needs to change from user state to kernel state , The cost is very high , The transition between States takes a relatively long time , That's why Synchronized The reason for low efficiency .

therefore , This depends on the operating system Mutex Lock The implemented lock is called " Heavyweight lock ".

notes : Locks can only be upgraded, not demoted .

  • contrast




Applicable scenario

Biased locking

Lock and unlock do not need extra cost , It's almost as efficient as executing asynchronous methods

If there is lock contention between threads , Will cause additional lock revocation cost .

It is applicable to the scenario where only one thread accesses the synchronization block

Lightweight lock
「 spinlocks 」

Competing threads don't block , Improve the response speed of the program .

If you can't always get the thread of lock contention , It will consume all the time CPU.

Pursue response time ;
Synchronized block ( Lock code ) Short execution time , Fewer threads .

Heavyweight lock
「OS lock 」

Thread contention doesn't consume CPU

Thread blocking , Slow response time .

Pursue throughput ;
Synchronous blocks take a long time to execute , There are many threads .

-------------- The third part , Let's add some other concepts of locks that we didn't talk about , Complete the contents of the lock --------------

【 Other lock concepts 】

  • Section lock

Section lock (SegmentLock) It's simply fine-grained locking , Divide a lock into two or more segments , The thread locks and unlocks according to its own operation segment .

This avoids meaningless waiting between threads , Reduce the waiting time of threads . Common applications are ConcurrentHashMap, It implements internally Segment<K,V> Inherited ReentrantLock, Divided into 16 paragraph .

Of course , Actually in jdk1.8 in ,ConcurrentHashMap And start using CAS The way .

  • Exclusive lock - Shared lock

Exclusive locks are also called mutexes 、 An exclusive lock 、 Write lock , A lock can only be held by one thread at a time , Other threads must wait for the lock to be released before they can acquire it . Such as ReentrantLock.

Shared lock is also called read lock , It allows multiple threads to acquire a lock at the same time , A lock can be owned by multiple threads at the same time . for instance ReadWriteLock.

  • Fair lock

Fair lock is to follow the principle of first come first served , Multiple threads acquire locks in the order in which they apply for locks .

  • Reentrant lock

Re entrant lock means , Add method A After the lock is locked and locked, the method is called B, The method B You need locks, too , This can lead to deadlock , A reentrant lock causes the method to be called B The lock is automatically acquired when it is locked .

Java China is through lockedBy Field to determine whether the locked thread is the same .

synchronized It's a reentrant lock , It must also be a re entrant lock , otherwise There is no way for a subclass to call a parent's method .

There are many concepts , But remember , These not only need to be familiar with in the process of work , And I will be asked in the interview , So the students who are looking for a job recently , The content of the lock is the most important , We must read more, practice more and remember more .

In this article, we talk about the lock in multithreading , Almost all the lock related things are mentioned , But the depth is not enough , We'll talk about it in the next article JUC All kinds of synchronization lock under the , Later on , If you have the time , Will try to add some source code related analysis , Let's take a look at how these locks play from the implementation level .

As a programmer , No interest or enthusiasm , It's too hard to keep going , I hope the future of this series , Try to see the essence through the phenomenon as much as possible , Now write these trivial things , All floating on the surface , Dealing with jobs and interviews , Boring and boring .

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