Linux: why performance tools need BPF Technology

Love to learn 2021-01-23 15:15:04
linux performance tools bpf technology


BPF In recent years Linux A huge innovation in systems technology . As Linux A key development node of the kernel , It's as important as virtualization 、 Containers 、SDN Technology .

▼BPF It's a very interesting way to work :

End user use BPF Instruction set of virtual machine ( Also known as BPF Bytecode ) Define filter expressions , And then pass it to the kernel , Executed by the interpreter . This allows packet filtering to be done directly in the kernel , Avoid copying each packet to user mode process , This improves the performance of packet filtering ,tcpdump(8) That's how it works .

BPF It also provides security , Because the user-defined filter must pass the security verification before execution .

Early packet filtering had to be performed in kernel space , Safety is a hard and fast requirement . You can see how all this works from the figure below .

file

tcpdump and BPF

Running tcpdump(8) With command line arguments -d, You can print out expressions that use filters BPF Instructions . for example :



▊** classic BPF And the extended version BPF**

The original BPF Now it's called “ classic BPF”, It's a virtual machine with limited capabilities . It has two registers , One by 16 A temporary storage area composed of two memory slots and a program counter . The above parts are in accordance with 32 Bit register size runs . classic BPF On 1997 in Linux Kernel version 2.1.75.

Then Alexei Starovoitov Created an extended version BPF(eBPF). This is a 20 Over the years BPF The first major update of , The move will also help BPF Expand to a universal virtual machine .

although BPF It's often called a virtual machine , But this often refers to its implementation specification .BPF stay Linux The actual implementation of ( Runtime support ) It also includes an interpreter and a compiler that can be immediately compiled into native instructions .

“ virtual machine ” It seems to mean running another machine layer on top of the processor , But actually BPF Execution is not like that .JIT The compiled code will be like any other native kernel code , Run directly on the processor . it is to be noted that , stay Spectre After the vulnerability was announced , Some distributions default to x86 Enable on Architecture JIT, Completely removed the interpreter implementation from the kernel ( The relevant code is directly excluded through conditional compilation ).

Extended version of BPF More registers have been added to , And change the word length from 32 To increase to 64 position , Created a flexible BPF Mapped storage (map), And allow some restricted kernel functions to be called . meanwhile ,eBPF Designed to use just in time compilation (JIT), Machine instructions and registers can be mapped one-to-one . This makes the previous processor local instruction optimization technology , Can be reused for BPF above .BPF The validator has also been updated to support these extensions , And can reject any unsafe code .

classic BPF And extensions BPF The differences between them are as follows .

file

In the earliest code patches , Extended version BPF It was once abbreviated as eBPF, But now in the development discussion , They all use BPF This is called .

Linux BPF Runtime (runtime) The architecture of each module is shown in the figure below .

file

BPF The internal structure of the runtime

The picture above shows BPF How the instructions go through BPF Verifier verification , Again by BPF Virtual machine execution .

BPF The implementation of virtual machine includes an interpreter , Including another JIT compiler :JIT The compiler is responsible for generating machine instructions that the processor can execute directly . The verifier will reject unsafe operations , This includes checking for unbounded loops :BPF The program must be completed in a limited time .

BPF You can use auxiliary functions to get the kernel state , utilize BPF Mapping table for storage .BPF The program executes when a specific event occurs , Include kprobes、uprobes And tracking points .

Now let's talk about , Why performance tools need BPF technology .

Why performance tools need BPF technology

Performance tools use the extended version BPF To achieve programmability .BPF The program can perform user-defined delay calculation, statistical summary and other functions . These characteristics alone are enough to make BPF Become an interesting tool .

But in fact, many tracking tools have these functions .BPF The difference is , It also has the characteristics of high efficiency and safe production environment , And it's built into Linux The kernel .

With BPF, You can run these tools directly in the production environment , and No need to add new kernel components .

Let's take a look at how performance tools are used through the output of a tool and a graph BPF Of .

This The output of the example comes from Master of performance optimization Gregg A previously released one is called bitehist Of BPF Tools , It shows disks in the form of histograms I/O The size distribution of :

file

The following figure shows using the BPF Before and after the histogram generation process .

file

Use BPF A comparison of the process of generating histograms before and after

The key change here is , Histograms can be generated in the kernel context , This greatly reduces the amount of data that needs to be copied into user space . The efficiency improvement here is so remarkable , So that the overhead of the tool is reduced to the extent that it can be run directly in the production environment .

Use BPF Before , The best steps to make this diagram summary are as follows .

1. In kernel : Turn on the disk I/O Stake in observation of events .

2. In kernel , For each event : towards perf The buffer writes a record . If tracking point technology is used ( Recommend ways ), The record will contain information about the disk I/O Several metadata fields of .

  1. In user space : Periodically copies the buffer contents of all events into user space .

  2. In user space : Traverse each event , Parse the event metadata field of the byte field . Other fields are ignored .

  3. In user space : Generate histogram summary of byte fields

One step 2 To step 4 For high I/O The cost of performance is very high . You can imagine , take 10000 A disk I/O The trace records are copied into the user space program , Then parse to generate summary information — To perform a second 1 Time .

Use BPF after ,bitesize The procedures are as follows .

  1. In kernel : Enable disk I/O Stake in observation of events , And mount one by bitesize Tool defined BPF Program .

  2. In kernel , For every event : function BPF Program . It just gets byte fields , And save it to a custom BPF Histogram mapping data structure .

3. In user space : Read once BPF Histogram mapping table and output results .

This process avoids the cost of copying events to user space and processing them again , It also avoids copying unused metadata fields . As shown in the previous program output screenshot , The only data that needs to be copied to user space is “count” Column , It's an array of numbers .

▊ BPF Compared with kernel module

There's another way to understand BPF Advantages in observability : Compare it to the kernel module .

kprobes And tracking points have been around for years , You can use it directly from a loadable kernel module . Compared to using kernel modules , Use BPF The advantages of tracking are as follows :

● BPF The program will pass the verifier security check ; Kernel modules may introduce bug( Kernel crash ) Or security holes .

● BPF Provide rich data structure support through mapping .

● BPF The program can be compiled at one time , And then run anywhere , because BPF Instruction set 、 Mapping table structure 、 Auxiliary functions and related infrastructure are stable ABI.( Of course , There are some BPF The program contains unstable factors , Like using kprobes To see the kernel data structure , This will affect BPF The stability of the program itself )

● BPF Program compilation does not depend on the intermediate result of kernel compilation process .

● Compared with the amount of work required to develop kernel modules ,BPF Programming is easier to learn , We can get more people to use it .

Please note that , In the field of network application BPF There are additional benefits , Including atomic substitution BPF The ability of the program . If using kernel module , You need to uninstall it completely from the kernel first , And then load again , This may lead to service disruption .

One of the benefits of using kernel modules is : Other kernel functions and kernel facilities can be used in the module , Not limited to BPF Auxiliary functions provided .

however , If the ability to call any kernel function is abused , It also brings in bug The extra risk of .

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