It's right to be independent , It's also right to be in the circle , The point is to figure out what kind of life you want to live , What price are you willing to pay for this .

We usually will Redis Use as cache , Improve read response performance , once Redis Downtime , All data in memory is lost , If visit database directly now, a large amount of traffic hits MySQL It could lead to more serious problems .

In addition, slowly read from the database to Redis Performance must not be better than from Redis Fast access , It can also slow down the response .

Redis In order to achieve rapid recovery without fear of downtime , Designed two killer maces , Namely AOF(Append Only FIle) Journal and RDB snapshot .

Learn a technique , Usually only contact with scattered technical points , I didn't build a complete knowledge framework and architecture system in my mind , There is no system view . It's going to be hard , And there will be a look as if they will , And then forget , A face of meng .

follow 「 Code byte 」 Eat it all together Redis, Deep mastery Redis Core principles and practical skills . Build a complete knowledge framework , Learn to look at the overall situation and organize the whole knowledge system .

The hard core of this paper , I suggest you like it , Calm down and read , I believe there will be a lot of harvest .

Last one 《Redis Core : The secret that can't be broken quickly 》 Analysis of the Redis The core data structure of 、IO Model 、 Threading model 、 Use appropriate data coding according to different data . Deep understanding of the real fast reasons !

This article will focus on the following points :

  • After downtime , How to recover quickly ?
  • It's down. ,Redis How to avoid data loss ?
  • What is? RDB memory dump ?
  • AOF Log implementation mechanism
  • What is? Copy on write technology ?
  • ….

The knowledge points involved are shown in the figure :

Redis Panorama

The panorama can be expanded around two dimensions , Namely :

Application dimension : Cache usage 、 Cluster application 、 Ingenious use of data structure

System dimension : Can be classified as three high

  1. High performance : Threading model 、 The Internet IO Model 、 data structure 、 Persistence mechanism ;
  2. High availability : Master slave copy 、 The sentry cluster 、Cluster Fragmentation cluster ;
  3. High expansion : Load balancing

Redis A series of chapters Around the mind map below , This time we're exploring together Redis A high performance 、 The secret of persistence .

Have a panorama , Master the system view .

The system view is actually crucial , To some extent , When solving problems , With a system view , It means you have a basis 、 Position and solve problems methodically .

RDB memory dump , Fast recovery from downtime

65 Brother :Redis It's down for some reason , Will cause all traffic to hit the back end MySQL, I started right away Redis, But its data is stored in memory , After the restart, there is still no data , How to prevent the loss of restart data ?

65 Don't worry ,「 Code byte 」 Take you step by step in-depth understanding to the end Redis How to recover quickly after downtime .

Redis Data stored in memory , Can we consider writing the data in memory to disk ? When Redis When you restart, you can quickly restore the data saved on the disk to the memory , In this way, the service can be provided normally after restart .

65 Brother : I came up with a plan , Every time you execute 「 Write 」 Write to disk while operating memory

The solution has a fatal problem : Each write instruction not only writes to memory, but also writes to disk , Disk performance is too slow relative to memory , It can lead to Redis Performance is greatly reduced .

memory dump

65 Brother : How to avoid the problem of simultaneous writing ?

We usually will Redis Use as a cache , So even Redis Not all data saved , It can also be obtained through the database , therefore Redis It won't save all the data , Redis Data persistence using 「RDB Data snapshot 」 To achieve rapid recovery from downtime .

65 Brother : What is RDB Memory snapshot ?

stay Redis perform 「 Write 」 In the process of instruction , Memory data changes all the time . So called memory snapshot , Refers to Redis The state data of the data in memory at a certain moment .

It's like time is fixed at a certain moment , When we take pictures , A moment can be completely recorded by taking pictures .

Redis It's similar to this , That is to take a moment's data as a file , Write to disk . This snapshot file is called RDB file ,RDB Namely Redis DataBase Abbreviation .

Redis By timing RDB memory dump , So you don't have to do it every time 「 Write 」 All instructions are written to disk , Just write to the disk while the memory snapshot is executed . It not only ensures that only fast can not be broken , It's also persistent , Fast recovery from downtime .

When doing data recovery , Direct will RDB The file is read into memory to complete the recovery .

65 Brother : What kind of data do you want to take a snapshot of ? Or how often to take a snapshot ? This will affect the execution efficiency of the snapshot .

65 I'm not bad , Starting to think about data efficiency . stay 《Redis Core : The secret that can't be broken quickly 》 We know that his single thread model determines that we should try our best to avoid blocking the operation of the main thread , avoid RDB File generation blocks the main thread .

Generate RDB Strategy

Redis Two instructions are provided to generate RDB file :

  • save: Main thread execution , It will block ;
  • bgsave: call glibc Function of fork Generate a subprocess to write RDB file , Snapshot persistence is completely left to the child process to handle , The parent process continues to process client requests , Generate RDB The default configuration of the file .

65 Brother : That's doing... On memory data 「 snapshot 」 When , Can memory data be modified ? That is, whether the write instruction can be processed normally ?

First of all, we need to be clear about , Avoid obstruction and RDB It's not the same thing to be able to handle write operations during file generation . Although the main thread is not blocked , At that time, in order to ensure the consistency of the snapshot data , Can only handle read operations , You cannot modify the data that is executing the snapshot .

Obviously , In order to generate RDB And pause the write operation ,Redis It's not allowed .

65 Brother : that Redis How to handle write requests at the same time , Simultaneous generation RDB What about the documents ?

Redis Multi process using the operating system Copy on write technology COW(Copy On Write) To achieve snapshot persistence , This mechanism is very interesting , And few people know . Multi process COW It's also an important indicator of the knowledge span of programmers .

Redis Will be called on persistence glibc Function of fork Generate a subprocess , Snapshot persistence is completely left to the child process to handle , The parent process continues to process client requests .

When the subprocess was just generated , It shares code and data segments in memory with the parent process . At this point you can think of the father-child process as a conjoined baby , Sharing the body .

This is a Linux The mechanism of the operating system , In order to save memory resources , So try to share them as much as possible . In the moment of process separation , Memory growth has barely changed .

bgsave The subprocess can share all the memory data of the main thread , Read data from the main thread and write it to RDB file .

In execution SAVE Order or BGSAVE Command to create a new RDB When you file , The program will check the key in the database , Keys that have expired will not be saved to newly created RDB In file .

When the main thread executes the write instruction to modify the data , This data will be copied , bgsave The child process reads the copy data and writes it to RDB file , So the main thread can modify the original data directly .

This ensures the integrity of the snapshot , It also allows the main thread to modify the data at the same time , Avoid the impact on normal business .

Redis Will use bgsave Take a snapshot of all the data in the current memory , This operation is done by the child process in the background , This allows the main thread to modify the data at the same time .

65 Brother : That can be executed every second RDB Documents , In this way, even if there is an outage, it will lose at most 1 Second data .

Taking full data snapshots too often , There are two serious performance overhead :

  1. Frequent generation RDB File write to disk , Disk pressure is too high . There will be a last RDB Not finished , The next one is coming up again , Fall into a dead cycle .
  2. fork Out bgsave The child process blocks the main thread , The more memory the main thread has , The longer the blocking time .

Advantages and disadvantages

Snapshot recovery is fast , But generate RDB File frequency is not easy to grasp , If the frequency is too low, more data will be lost due to downtime ; Too fast , It's going to cost extra .

RDB Use binary + Write to disk by data compression , Small file size , Fast data recovery .

Redis except RDB Beyond full snapshot , And designed AOF Post log , Now let's talk about AOF journal .

AOF Post log , Avoid downtime and data loss

AOF The log stores Redis The sequence of server instructions ,AOF The log records only the instructions that modify the memory .

hypothesis AOF The log records from Redis All modified instruction sequences since instance creation , Then you can pass on an empty Redis The instance executes all instructions in sequence , That is to say 「 replay 」, To restore Redis The status of the memory data structure of the current instance .

Compare the log before and after writing

Write a Prelog (Write Ahead Log, WAL): Before actually writing data , Write the modified data to the log file , Recovery is guaranteed .

such as MySQL Innodb Storage engine Medium redo log( Redo log ) It's a data log that records changes , Record the modification log before modifying the data, and then modify the data .

Post log : Execute first 「 Write 」 Command request , Write data to memory , Log it again .

Log format

When Redis Accept to 「set key MageByte」 Command to write data to memory ,Redis It will be written in the following format AOF file .

  • 「*3」: Indicates that the current instruction is divided into three parts , Every part is 「$ + Numbers 」 start , This part is followed by the specific 「 Instructions 、 key 、 value 」.
  • 「 Numbers 」: The command for this part 、 key 、 The size of bytes occupied by the value . such as 「$3」 This part contains 3 Bytes , That is to say 「set」 Instructions .

65 Brother : Why? Redis How about using post write log ?

The post write log avoids the extra checking overhead , There is no need to check the syntax of the executed command . If you use pre write logs , You need to check the grammar first , Otherwise, the log records the wrong command , When using log recovery, there will be an error .

in addition , Log after writing , It won't block the current 「 Write 」 Command execution .

65 Brother : That's it AOF It's safe ?

Silly child , It's not that simple . If Redis Just finished executing the instructions , There's no log down yet , It is possible to lose the data related to this command .

also ,AOF It avoids the blocking of the current command , But there is a risk of blocking the next command .AOF Logs are executed by the main thread , Writing logs to disk , If the disk pressure is high, it will lead to slow disk writing , Leading to subsequent 「 Write 」 Command blocking .

Did you find out , These two problems are related to disk writeback , If we can reasonably control 「 Write 」 After the instruction is executed AOF When the log is written back to disk , The problem is solved .

Write back strategy

In order to improve the efficiency of writing files , When the user calls write function , When writing some data to a file , The operating system usually stores the write data in a memory buffer temporarily , Wait until the buffer is full 、 Or beyond the specified time limit , To write the data in the buffer to the disk .

Although this approach improves efficiency , But it also brings security issues for writing data , Because if the computer goes down , Then the write data stored in the memory buffer will be lost .

So , The system provides fsync and fdatasync Two synchronous functions , They can force the operating system to write the data in the buffer to the hard disk immediately , So as to ensure the security of writing data .

Redis Provided AOF Configuration item appendfsync The write back strategy directly determines AOF The efficiency and security of persistence capabilities .

  • always: Synchronous write back , When the write instruction is finished, it will be aof_buf The contents of the buffer are flushed to AOF file .
  • everysec: Write back every second , The write instruction is finished , The log will only write AOF File buffer , Synchronize buffer contents to disk every second .
  • no: Operating system control , Write execution complete , Write the log to AOF File memory buffer , It's up to the operating system to decide when to write to disk .

There is no best of both strategies , We need to make a trade-off between performance and reliability .

always Synchronous write back can prevent data loss , But every one of them 「 Write 」 Instructions need to be written to disk , The worst performance .

everysec Write back every second , Avoid the performance overhead of synchronous writeback , In case of downtime, one second bit of data written to disk may be lost , There's a trade-off between performance and reliability .

no Operating system control , Write after executing the write instruction AOF The file buffer can perform subsequent 「 Write 」 Instructions , Best performance , But it's possible to lose a lot of data .

65 Brother : So how do I choose a strategy ?

According to the requirements of the system for high performance and high reliability , To choose the write back strategy . To sum up : For high performance , Just choose No Strategy ; If you want high reliability assurance , Just choose Always Strategy ; If you allow a little bit of data loss , I hope the performance will not be affected too much , Then choose Everysec Strategy .

Advantages and disadvantages

advantage : Log only after successful execution , Avoid instruction syntax checking overhead . meanwhile , It won't block the current 「 Write 」 Instructions .

shortcoming : because AOF What is recorded is the contents of each instruction , Please refer to the log format above for the specific format . Every instruction needs to be executed during recovery , If the log file is too large , The whole recovery process will be very slow .

In addition, the file system also has limits on file size , Can't save too large a file , The file gets bigger , Additional efficiency will also be lower .

The log is too large :AOF Rewrite mechanism

65 Brother :AOF What if the log file is too large ?

AOF Write a Prelog , It's a record of each 「 Write 」 Command operation . Don't like RDB Full snapshot leads to performance loss , But the execution speed didn't RDB fast , At the same time, too large log file can also cause performance problems , For those who are quick but not broken Redis For this real man , I can't stand the problem caused by too large log .

therefore ,Redis Designed a killer 「AOF Rewrite mechanism 」,Redis Provides bgrewriteaof Instructions are used for AOF Keep your weight down .

Its principle is to open up a subprocess to traverse memory and convert it into a series of Redis Operation instructions of , Serialize to a new AOF Log file . Increment occurred during operation after serialization AOF The log is appended to this new AOF Log file , Replace the old one immediately after the addition AOF The log file is missing , The job of slimming is done .

65 Brother : Why? AOF Rewriting mechanism can reduce the size of log files ?

The rewriting mechanism is 「 Changeable one 」 function , Put multiple instructions in the old log , After rewriting, it becomes an instruction .

As shown below :

Three LPUSH Instructions , after AOF After rewriting, a , For scenes that have been modified many times , The reduction effect is more obvious .

65 Brother : After rewriting AOF The log gets smaller , Finally, the operation log of the latest data of the whole database is written to disk . Will rewriting block the main thread ?

「 Margo 」 As mentioned above ,AOF Logs are written back by the main thread ,AOF The process of rewriting is actually the backstage process bgrewriteaof complete , Prevent blocking the main thread .

Rewrite process

and AOF The log is written back by the main thread , The rewriting process is made up of a background subprocess bgrewriteaof To complete , This is also to avoid blocking the main thread , Cause database performance degradation .

in general , All together Two logs , Copy memory data once , The old ones, respectively AOF Logs and new AOF Rewrite logs and Redis Data copy .

Redis Will be rewritten in the process of receiving 「 Write 」 Command operations are also recorded to the old AOF Buffers and AOF Rewrite buffer , In this way, the rewriting log also keeps the latest operation . Wait until all operation records of the copied data are rewritten , The latest operation to rewrite the buffer record is also written to the new AOF In file .

Every time AOF When rewriting ,Redis A memory copy will be executed first , For traversing data to generate rewriting records ; Use two logs to ensure that during rewriting , The newly written data will not be lost , And keep the data consistent .

65 Brother :AOF Rewriting also has a rewriting log , Why it's not shared AOF My own log ?

That's a good question , There are two reasons :

  1. One reason is that when a parent-child process writes the same file, there is bound to be competition , Controlling competition means that the performance of the parent process will be affected .
  2. If AOF The rewriting process failed , So the original AOF The document is equivalent to being contaminated , Can't do recovery . therefore Redis AOF Rewrite a new file , If rewriting fails , Just delete this file , Not to the original AOF Documents have an impact . When the rewriting is done , Just replace the old file .

Redis 4.0 Hybrid logging model

restart Redis when , We seldom use rdb To restore memory state , Because a lot of data will be lost . We usually use AOF Log replay , But replay AOF Log performance is relative rdb It's a lot slower , In this way Redis When the examples are large , It takes a long time to start .

Redis 4.0 To solve this problem , Brings a new persistence option —— Mix persistence . take rdb The content of the file and the incremental AOF Log files exist together . there AOF Logs are no longer full logs , It's the increment from the beginning of persistence to the end of persistence AOF journal , Usually this part AOF The log is very small .

So in Redis When restarting , You can load rdb The content of , Then replay the increment AOF Log can completely replace the previous AOF Full file replay , The restart efficiency has been greatly improved .

therefore RDB Memory snapshots are executed at a slightly slower rate , On two occasions RDB Use during snapshot AOF Log all that happened during the period 「 Write 」 operation .

In this way, the snapshot does not need to be executed frequently , At the same time as AOF Just record what happened between two snapshots 「 Write 」 Instructions , You don't need to record all the operations , Avoid large files .

summary

Redis Designed bgsave And copy on write , Avoid as much as possible the impact on read and write instructions during snapshot execution , Frequent snapshots can put pressure on the disk and fork Block main thread .

Redis Two killer maces are designed to achieve rapid recovery from downtime , Data is not lost .

Avoid log overload , Provides AOF Rewrite mechanism , According to the latest status of the data in the database , Write operations that generate data as new logs , And through the background to complete without blocking the main thread .

comprehensive AOF and RDB stay Redis 4.0 Provides a new persistence strategy , Hybrid logging model . stay Redis When restarting , You can load rdb The content of , Then replay the increment AOF Log can completely replace the previous AOF Full file replay , The restart efficiency has been greatly improved .

Last , About AOF and RDB The choice of ,「 code Brother word section 」 There are three suggestions :

  • When data cannot be lost , Memory snapshot and AOF It's a good choice to use a mixture of ;
  • If minute level data loss is allowed , You can just use RDB;
  • If only AOF, priority of use everysec Configuration options , Because it strikes a balance between reliability and performance .

After two articles Redis Series articles , Readers are interested in Redis There should be an overall understanding .

Next 「 Margo 」 It will bring a real battle ,《Redis High availability : The mystery of master-slave architecture 》 actual combat + The principle is presented to you !

Coming soon ......

Hard core, good writing

Redis Core : The secret that can't be broken quickly

Tomcat Architecture Principle Analysis to design reference

From the point of view of interview kafka

from JMM dialysis volatile And synchronized principle

Focus on 「 Code byte 」, Every time it's hard core . If you have any harvest after reading, please 「 give the thumbs-up 、 Share 、 Collection 」, Thank you for your support .

The readership has been opened , The big guys in the group and the big factories , You can not only extrapolate, you can also learn . add to 「 Margo 」 Personal wechat , reply 「 Add group 」 Growing up together !

Acknowledgement

redis Core technology and actual combat : https://time.geekbang.org/column/intro/329

redis Deep Adventure : Core principles and application practice : https://juejin.cn/book/6844733724618129422/section/6844733724714614797

redis Design and practice : https://weread.qq.com/web/reader/d35323e0597db0d35bd957bk73532580243735b90b45ac8

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