Java Basics - inheritance

Write code to change Basin 2021-02-23 17:47:08
java basics inheritance

Access right

Java There are three access modifiers in :private、protected as well as public, If you do not add an access modifier , Indicates package-level visibility .

You can pair a class or a member of a class ( Fields and methods ) Add an access modifier .

  • Class visibility means that other classes can use this class to create instance objects .
  • Member visibility means that other classes can access that member with instance objects of that class ;

protected Pertaining to members , Means that members are visible to subclasses in the inheritance system , But this access modifier has no meaning for the class .

A well-designed module hides all the implementation details , It's API It is clearly separated from its implementation . Modules pass between them only API communicate , A module does not need to know the inner workings of other modules , This concept is called information hiding or encapsulation . Therefore, access rights should make every class or member as inaccessible as possible .

If the method of the subclass overrides the method of the parent class , Then the access level of the method in a subclass is not allowed to be lower than that of the parent class . This is to ensure that where parent instances can be used, subclass instances can be used instead of , That is to make sure that the Richter substitution principle is met .

Fields must never be public , Because by doing so you lose control of the behavior of this field modification , The client can modify it at will . For example, in the following example ,AccessExample Have id Public field , If at some point , We want to use int Storage id Field , Then you need to modify all the client code .

public class AccessExample {
public String id;

You can use public getter and setter Method to replace the public field , This allows you to control the behavior of the field changes .

public class AccessExample {
private int id;
public String getId() {
return id + "";
public void setId(String id) { = Integer.valueOf(id);

But there are exceptions , If it is a package-level private class or a private nested class , Then direct exposure of members won't have a particularly big impact .

public class AccessWithInnerClassExample {
private class InnerClass {
int x;
private InnerClass innerClass;
public AccessWithInnerClassExample() {
innerClass = new InnerClass();
public int getValue() {
return innerClass.x; // Direct access 

Abstract classes and interfaces

1. abstract class

Both abstract classes and abstract methods are used abstract Keyword to declare . If a class contains abstract methods , Then the class must be declared abstract .

The biggest difference between an abstract class and a normal class is this , Abstract class cannot be instantiated , Can only be inherited .

public abstract class AbstractClassExample {
protected int x;
private int y;
public abstract void func1();
public void func2() {
public class AbstractExtendClassExample extends AbstractClassExample {
public void func1() {
// AbstractClassExample ac1 = new AbstractClassExample(); // 'AbstractClassExample' is abstract; cannot be instantiated
AbstractClassExample ac2 = new AbstractExtendClassExample();

2. Interface

Interface is an extension of abstract class , stay Java 8 Before , It can be viewed as a completely abstract class , That is, it cannot be implemented in any way .

from Java 8 Start , Interfaces can also have default method implementations , This is because interfaces that do not support default methods are too expensive to maintain . stay Java 8 Before , If an interface wants to add a new method , Modify all classes that implement the interface , Let them all implement the new method .

Member of the interface ( Field + Method ) The default is public Of , And is not allowed to be defined as private perhaps protected. from Java 9 Start , Allows methods to be defined as private, In this way, we can define some reusable code without exposing the method .

The fields of the interface are by default static and final Of .

public interface InterfaceExample {
void func1();
default void func2(){
int x = 123;
// int y; // Variable 'y' might not have been initialized
public int z = 0; // Modifier 'public' is redundant for interface fields
// private int k = 0; // Modifier 'private' not allowed here
// protected int l = 0; // Modifier 'protected' not allowed here
// private void fun3(); // Modifier 'private' not allowed here
public class InterfaceImplementExample implements InterfaceExample {
public void func1() {
// InterfaceExample ie1 = new InterfaceExample(); // 'InterfaceExample' is abstract; cannot be instantiated
InterfaceExample ie2 = new InterfaceImplementExample();

3. Compare

  • From the perspective of design , Abstract classes provide one IS-A Relationship , We need to satisfy the principle of substitution , That is, the subclass object must be able to replace all the superclass objects . An interface is more like a LIKE-A Relationship , It just provides a way to implement the contract , Interfaces and classes that implement them are not required to have IS-A Relationship .
  • In terms of usage , A class can implement multiple interfaces , But cannot inherit multiple abstract classes .
  • The fields of the interface can only be static and final Type of , The fields of the abstract class have no such restriction .
  • The members of the interface can only be public Of , Members of abstract classes can have multiple access rights .

4. Used to choose

Use interface :

  • You need to have unrelated classes implement a method , For example, unrelated classes can be implemented Comparable Interface compareTo() Method ;
  • Multiple inheritance is required .

Using abstract classes :

  • Code needs to be Shared among several related classes .
  • You need to be able to control access to inherited members , Not all of them public.
  • You need to inherit non-static and non-constant fields .

In many cases , Interfaces take precedence over abstract classes . Because interfaces do not have strict class hierarchy requirements for abstract classes , You have the flexibility to add behavior to a class . And from Java 8 Start , Interfaces can also have a default method implementation , The cost of modifying the interface also becomes very low .


  • Access the constructor of the parent class : have access to super() Function accesses the constructor of the parent class , This delegates some initialization to the parent class . It should be noted that , The subclass must call the constructor of the parent class to complete the initialization , Generally, the default constructor of the parent class is called , If the subclass needs to call other constructors of the parent class , Then you can use it super() function .
  • Access the member of the parent class : If a subclass overrides a method of the parent class , By using super Keyword to refer to the method implementation of the parent class .
public class SuperExample {
protected int x;
protected int y;
public SuperExample(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
public void func() {
public class SuperExtendExample extends SuperExample {
private int z;
public SuperExtendExample(int x, int y, int z) {
super(x, y);
this.z = z;
public void func() {
SuperExample e = new SuperExtendExample(1, 2, 3);

Overrides and overloads

1. rewrite (Override)

It's in the inheritance system , A subclass that implements a method that is identical in method declaration to the parent class .

To satisfy the inside substitution principle , There are three limitations to rewriting :

  • A subclass method must have access greater than or equal to a superclass method ;
  • The return type of a subclass method must be the return type of a parent method or its child .
  • The exception type thrown by a subclass method must be the exception type thrown by the parent class or its subtype .

Use @Override annotation , You can ask the compiler to check if the above three constraints are met .

In the following example ,SubClass by SuperClass Subclasses of ,SubClass Rewrote SuperClass Of func() Method . among :

  • Subclass method access is public, Larger than the parent protected.
  • The return type of the subclass is ArrayList<Integer>, Is the return type of the parent class List<Integer> Subclasses of .
  • The exception type thrown by subclass is Exception, It's the parent class that throws the exception Throwable Subclasses of .
  • Subclass override methods use @Override annotation , This allows the compiler to automatically check if the constraints are met .
class SuperClass {
protected List<Integer> func() throws Throwable {
return new ArrayList<>();
class SubClass extends SuperClass {
public ArrayList<Integer> func() throws Exception {
return new ArrayList<>();

When calling a method , First from this class to find out whether there is a corresponding method , If you don't go to the parent class again , See if it is inherited from the parent class . Otherwise, we need to transform the parameters , After converting to a parent class, see if there is a corresponding method . in general , The priority of the method call is :

  • this.func(this)
  • super.func(this)
  • this.func(super)
  • super.func(super)
class A {
public void show(A obj) {
public void show(C obj) {
class B extends A {
public void show(A obj) {
class C extends B {
class D extends C {
public static void main(String[] args) {
A a = new A();
B b = new B();
C c = new C();
D d = new D();
// stay A in show(A obj), Call directly; //
// stay A Does not exist in the show(B obj), take B Transformed into its father A; //
// stay B From A inherited show(C obj), Call directly; //
// stay B Does not exist in the show(D obj), But existence comes from A inherited show(C obj), take D Transformed into its father C; //
// The quote is still B object , therefore ba and b The result of the call is the same 
A ba = new B();; //; //

2. heavy load (Overload)

Exists in the same class , A method that has the same name as an existing method , But parameter types 、 Number 、 There is at least one difference in order .

It should be noted that , Different return values , Everything else being the same is not an overload .

class OverloadingExample {
public void show(int x) {
public void show(int x, String y) {
System.out.println(x + " " + y);
public static void main(String[] args) {
OverloadingExample example = new OverloadingExample();;, "2");
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