Linux text processing

Weaving magic demon 2021-03-27 19:21:35
linux text processing

cat command

cat Commands can be used to display the contents of a text file ( Be similar to DOS Under the type command ), You can also attach the contents of several files to another file , That is to connect and merge files .




amount to -vET Integration of options , Used to list all hidden symbols ;


List the carriage returns at the end of each line $;


Number all lines of output ;


Same as -n Different , This option means that only non empty lines are numbered .


hold Tab key ^I Show it ;


List special characters ;


When it comes to continuous 2 A blank line above the line , Just replace it with 1 Blank lines of lines .

cat file name ------ View text content

cat -n file name ---------- According to the line Numbers .

cat -A file name ---------- View all hidden symbols in the text , Including carriage returns ($)、Tab key (^I) etc.

more command

more The command can display the contents of the text file in pages , Users can read the contents of the document page by page

[root@localhost ~]# more [ Options ] file name




When calculating the number of lines , In the actual number of lines , Instead of the number of lines after the wrap .


Don't scroll through each page , Instead, clear the screen first and then display the content .


Follow -p Similar options , The difference is to display the content first and then clear other old data .


When there are more than two consecutive blank lines , Just replace it with a blank line .


Don't show quotes ( According to environment variable TERM Different from the specified terminal ).


From n Line starts to show the contents of the file ,n On behalf of the digital .


The number of lines displayed at one time ,n On behalf of the digital .

more -c -10 test.txt Every time 10 Line display one screen , Clear the screen at the same time

head command

head Command to display the contents of a specified file in the first few lines



-n K

there K Number of lines , This option is used to display the file before K The content of the line ; If you use "-K" As a parameter , In addition to the last part of the file K Out of line , Show all the rest .

-c K

there K Represents the number of bytes , This option is used to display the file before K Bytes of content ; If you use "-K", In addition to the last part of the file K The contents of bytes , Show the rest .


Show filename ;

head The command defaults to the beginning of the file 10 Row content .

Show the beginning of the file 20 Row content

less command

less The function of command and more Very similar , Are used to browse the contents of text files , The difference is , Use more Command to browse the contents of a file , Just keep looking back , While using less Command to browse , You can look back , You can also look forward .

More Than This , In order for users to browse text content ,less The command also provides the following functions :

  • Use the cursor keys to move around in a text file ( Back left ) Scroll ;
  • Use line numbers or percentages as bookmarks to browse files ;
  • Provide more friendly retrieval 、 Highlight and so on ;
  • Compatible with common word processing programs ( Such as Vim、Emacs) Keyboard operation of ;
  • By the end of the reading ,less Orders don't quit ;
  • The information at the bottom of the screen makes it easier to control the use of , And it provides more information .


Meaning of options


Show the line number of each line .


If the line is too long, the excess will be discarded .


When the file display is finished , Leave automatically .


Only mark the last key searched .


Don't use a warning tone .


Ignore case when searching .


The display is similar to more Percentage of orders .


Force to open special files , For example, peripheral device code 、 Directories and binaries .


Show a row of consecutive empty actions .

-b < Buffer size >

Set the size of the buffer .

-o < file name >

take less Save the output to the specified file .

-x < Numbers >

take 【Tab】 Key is displayed as the specified number space .

less Interactive instructions and functions

Interactive instruction


/ character string

Search down “ character string ” The function of .

? character string

Search up “ character string ” The function of .


repeat * The previous search ( And / become ? of ).


Repeat the previous search in reverse ( And / or ? of ).


Move a page up .


Move down half a page .

h or H

Show help screen .

q or Q

sign out less command .


Move a line up .

Space bar

Move down one page .

Enter key

Move one line down .

【PgDn】 key

Move down one page .

【PgUp】 key

Move a page up .


Move down one page .


Move a page up .


Move down one page .


Move half a page up .


Move one line down .


Move a line up .


Move to the last line .


Move to first line .


sign out less command .


Edit the current file using the configured editor .


Move to the previous node in this document .


Move to the next node in this document .


Move to the previous node in the same level .


Move half a page up .

tail command

tail Command and head The order is just the opposite , It's used to look at the data at the end of the file , The basic format is as follows :

[root@localhost ~]# tail [ Options ] file name



-n K

there K It's the number of lines , This option indicates the last K That's ok , On this basis , If you use -n +K, From the second part of the file K Line start output .

-c K

there K It's the number of bytes , This option indicates the last... Of the output file K Bytes of content , On this basis , Use -c +K From the file No K The output starts with two bytes .


New data added after the output file changes .

see At the end of the text 3 The data content of the row .

Original statement , This article is authorized by the author + Community publication , Unauthorized , Shall not be reproduced .

If there is any infringement , Please contact the Delete .

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