summary

Today, we mainly use Intel For example CPU A brief introduction to the working principle of , Through this brief introduction , Reach the right AMD,ARM,MIPS even to the extent that PowerPC Grasp a typical example and you will grasp the whole category .


CPU development history

1968 year 7 month 18 Japan , Bob - North and Gordon - Moore's new company is in California , It's medofe street in manyanview on the beautiful San Francisco Bay 365 It's open . And soon after it was founded, it invested 15000 Dollars from a company called INTELCO I bought it from my company Intel The right to use a name . thus Intel The semiconductor giant started his career in IT The legendary history of the industry .

1971 year 11 month 15 Japan , This day is regarded as global IT It has been written into many computer textbooks on the landmark day of computer science .Intel Ted, the company's engineer · Hoff invented the world's first microprocessor —4004, This kind of 4 Bit microprocessors are only 45 Orders , And it can only execute per second 5 Ten thousand instructions . It's not even as good as 1946 The world's first computer developed by the U.S. Army and the University of Pennsylvania in ENIAC. But it's much more integrated , A piece of 4004 It's less than a cup of wine . Because he invented the microprocessor , By England 《 economists 》 The magazine is called “ One of the most influential scientists since the Second World War ”.Intel The company's CPU The development process is shown in the table below :

 Detailed explanation Linux System CPU The internal structure and working principle of

 

And the back Pentium 1,2,3 and 4, And then to core 、 core 2, I won't list them one by one here .

Intel from 8086 Start , It's in what we call x86 Time . and 80386 And the birth of Intel It's entering 32 The era of bit microprocessors . from 80386 To Pentium 4 In this age CPU, It's legendary IA-32 Time .


cpu working principle

We all know CPU The fundamental task is to execute instructions , For a computer, it's all a bunch of things “0” and “1” The sequence of components .CPU Logically, it can be divided into 3 A module , The control unit 、 Computing units and storage units , These three parts are made up of CPU Internal bus connection .

As shown below :

 Detailed explanation Linux System CPU The internal structure and working principle of

 

control unit : The control unit is the whole CPU Command and control center , By the instruction register IR(Instruction Register)、 Instruction decoder ID(Instruction Decoder) And operating controls OC(Operation Controller) etc. , It is very important to coordinate the orderly work of the whole computer . It's based on the user's pre programmed program , Take each instruction out of the memory in turn , Put it in the instruction register IR in , By decoding instructions ( analysis ) Determine what to do , And then by operating the controller OC, In a certain sequence , Send micromanipulation control signals to corresponding components . Operating the controller OC It mainly includes beat pulse generator 、 Control matrix 、 Clock generator 、 Reset circuit, start stop circuit and other control logic .

Arithmetic unit : It's the core of the arithmetic unit . Can perform arithmetic operations ( Including addition and subtraction multiplier and other basic operations and additional operations ) And logic ( Including displacement 、 Logic test or comparison of two values ). Relative to the control unit , The arithmetic unit receives the command from the control unit and operates , That is to say, all operations carried out by the operation unit are directed by the control signals sent by the control unit , So it's the executive part .

Storage unit : Include CPU On chip cache and register group , yes CPU Where data is temporarily stored in , It holds the data waiting to be processed , Or data that has been processed ,CPU It takes less time to access registers than to access memory . Use register , Can reduce the CPU Number of memory accesses , So as to improve CPU Working speed of . But because of the limitation of chip area and integration , The capacity of a register group cannot be large . Register group can be divided into special register and general register . The function of special register is fixed , Register the corresponding data separately . General purpose registers are widely used and can be specified by programmers , The number of general purpose registers varies from microprocessor to microprocessor .

Zoom in on the above picture , We can draw CPU The working principle of is summarized as follows :

 Detailed explanation Linux System CPU The internal structure and working principle of

 

in general ,CPU Take instructions and corresponding data from memory one by one , According to the instruction operation code , The data is processed by operation , Until the program is finished .


summary

CPU Operating principle : The control unit is under the action of sequential pulse , The address of the instruction pointed to in the instruction counter ( This address is in memory ) To the address bus , then CPU Read the instruction in this address to the instruction register for decoding . For the data needed in the execution of instructions , The data address will also be sent to the address bus , then CPU Read the data to CPU Internal storage unit of ( It's the internal register ) Put it in storage , Finally, the command operation unit processes the data . Go round and begin again , It's been carried out like this , Until the blackout .