Preface

In the field of computer software , There are many gods and men who have made great contributions , such as :《 Computer programming art 》(The Art of Computer Programming) The author of a Book - Donald Knuth;Pascal The author of Anders Hejlsberg;Unix ,Go Programming language , B Programming language ,UTF-8 code ,ed The creator of the text editor 、 Designer Ken Thompson;GNU Project sponsor ,Emacs,GCC,GDB Inventors and GU Make Free Software Company founder Richard Stallman;java The father of James Gosling,linux,git By Linus towaz ;c Language 、unix By Dennis Ritchie and so on .

We can list a lot of gods , In this shining star , The most shining is Linus Torvalds and Dennis Ritchie.

So which of these two contributed more ?

This is a difficult question to answer , Just like Guan Gong and Qin Qiong , opinion , Wise men see wisdom. .

Let's introduce the two great gods first .

One 、Dennis Ritchie

C The father of language ,UNIX The father of .

1) Dennis Ritchie(1941 year - 2011 year 10 month 12 Japan )

Dennis Ritchie

Dennis Ritchie He once served as the director of system software research department of computer science research center of Lucent technology company Bell laboratory .1978 With Brian · Cornegan (Brian W. Kernighan) Together published a masterpiece 《C Programming language (The C Programming Language)》. The book has been translated into many languages , Known as the c The Bible of language .

2011 year 10 month 12 Japan , work together 20 My colleagues in Rob Pike From California to New Jersey to visit him , Only to find out that he has passed away . Because I live alone , It's impossible to know the exact time of death . At the age of 70 year .

 Dennis · Rich's life

Dennis · Rich's been single all the time ( The realm of the great God is really )

2) C Language

Dennis · Rich created C Programming languages and Unix operating system . No matter which of these projects , Can make him stand out in the computer industry . And Daniel Ritchie developed two big projects , It's unique in the history of computer .

in fact ,C Languages are used in various software programs , Embedded system development , Operating system , It's the most widely used . meanwhile ,C Language has also influenced most modern mainstream programming languages . C Language timeline

1960s Late S , Bell laboratory's research on computer systems has entered a prosperous period .MIT、General Electric、Bell Cooperation of laboratories Mutlics The project ended in failure (1969 About years ago ).

It's in this period ,Ken Tompson Start writing Mutlics substitute , He hopes to build a comfortable computing system according to his own design ( That is to say Unix).

Later, I wrote the first version of Unix when , Think Unix A new system programming language is needed on , He created a B Language .B There is no type of language C, Accurate said B Language is Tompson hold BCPL squeeze into 8K Memory , Language filtered by his brain .

because B There are some problems in language , As a result, it is only used to write some command tools . Just at this time ,Ritchie stay B On the basis of language , It's been redesigned , And it gave birth to C Language .
K&R

1973 year ,C The language is basically complete , From the language and compiler level, it's enough to Tompson and Ritchie Use C Language rewriting Unix kernel . later ,Unix In some research institutions 、 university 、 Government agencies are slowly becoming popular , And then it drives C The development of language .

1978 year ,K&R Compiling 《The C Programming Language》 published , To further promote C The popularity of language .

3) unix

unix Timeline
Unix The birth and C Language is widely spread 、 Use , There is a close connection .

The timeline above shows only the first few and C Language was born in the same period of time Unix edition .

Later, it was used in academic and government organizations Unix, Because Unix The popularity and prosperity of , Driven C Language is widely spread 、 Use .

stay 1980 years ,C The use of language is widespread , And almost all machine architectures and operating systems can use compilers . In especial , It has become a programming tool for personal computers , Whether it's a commercial software manufacturer for these machines , Or end users interested in programming , Are very popular .
unix Branch Unix Branch , It's so shocking .

Take a look at some of the most famous branches :BSD、minix、Linux、Mac OS X…

Foot visible unix The impact on the current operating system , Its status is like 《 The book of changes 》, It's the first of the classics .

 The book of changes

4) first C How language compilers are written ?

I don't know if you ever thought about , We all use C Language or based on C Language language to write compiler , So the first in the world C How to write a language compiler ? This is not a “ Chicken and egg ” The problem of ……

Take a look back. C History of language :Tomphson stay BCPL On the basis of the development of B Language ,Ritchie And in the B Language based on the successful development of the present C Language . stay C Before language was used as a system programming language ,Tomphson Used it, too B Language has written operating systems . Visible in C Before language implementation ,B The language is ready for use . So the first one C The prototype of a language compiler could have used B Language or mix B Language and PDP Compiled in assembly language .

We all know now ,B The execution efficiency of language is relatively low , But if you write it all in assembly language , Not only is the development cycle long 、 High maintenance difficulty , What's more, it lost the portability of high-level programming language .

So early C The language compiler takes a tricky approach : First write an assembly language C A compiler for a subset of languages , And then recursion through this subset , And then complete C Language compiler .

So create the first C Compilers are no less difficult than creating C The difficulty of language .

If you don't understand , for instance , We're going to build a building , All the drawings have been designed , To start construction .

So the equipment and tools used to build the building : Tower crane 、 The scaffold 、 Pliers 、 bolt driver 、 level 、 Tape measure and so on , All the tools that are used , It's all countless companies. After years of continuous research and development, they have reached today's standard .

And compile c Compiler of language , It's like all the tools you need to build a building , Dennis didn't just design it himself C Language , And designed the whole set of tools from the beginning to the end .

This job is creative , There are not many references , It's hard to imagine .

Two 、 Linus Torvalds(1969 year 12 month 28 Japan - )

Linux The father of 、Git The father of .

1) Linus Torvalds(1969 year 12 month 28 Japan - )

Linus Torvalds

Helsinki, Finland , Famous computer programmer ,Linux The inventor of the kernel and the collaborators of the project , Graduated from the computer department of the University of Helsinki ,1997 - 2003 He worked for quanmeida in Silicon Valley, California, USA (Transmeta Corporation), He is now employed by the open source development laboratory (OSDL:Open Source Development Labs, Inc), Make every effort to develop Linux kernel . And ** My wife, TOF (Tove, Former women's karate champion of Finland )** There are three girls .

Linus

Focus on : My wife, TOF (Tove, Former women's karate champion of Finland ).

 Following my grandfather's college teaching career , I also became a teaching assistant at the University of Helsinki , I was assigned to teach in Swedish this fall 《 Introduction to computer science 》 Course .
That's it , I met taff .  Her influence on my life is even greater than  《 operating system : Design and execution 》  A book has a bigger impact on me . however , I won't bother you with the details of the impact .
at that time , Taff is one of fifteen students in my class . She already has a degree in preschool education ( It's not like in America , Finland requires preschool teachers to have a college degree ), She also wants to learn about computers , But I can't make the same progress as the rest of the class . Of course , In the end, she was ? Up there .
The process of our interaction is so simple .
That's in  1993  In the autumn , The Internet is not yet popular .  therefore , one day , My homework assignment in this class is to send me an email ( It's ridiculous to put it today ), I said to the students :“ Today's homework : Send me an email .”
Other people's emails are not phrases for recording , It's just a bunch of boring notes .
Only taff , She invited me out with her .
I married the first woman to approach me electronically .
Taff is a kindergarten teacher who has won six Karate Championships in Finland .  Her family is unique , Although I don't think it's as bizarre as our family .  She has many friends .
From the first moment we were together , She's like the best woman for me . 
After months of dating , My cat Randy and I moved to her apartment .
In the first two weeks of moving in , I haven't even touched my computer .
Not counting my military service , These two weeks have been since I was ten years old, sitting on my grandfather's lap playing with the computer  ,
The longest time I've been away from the computer . 
It does not need to be described in detail , But it's really a record of the longest time I've been away from the computer except for military service .

— come from linux Autobiography 《just for fun》.
just for fun

The meeting between grandmaster and grandmother is so romantic , Their first child should have been made in those two weeks .

2) Git

Git Is an open source distributed version control system , Can be effectively 、 High speed project versioning from very small to very large , It is the most advanced distributed version control system in the world .Git Is used for Linux Version control tools for kernel development .

And common version control tools CVS, Subversion And so on , It adopts the way of distributed version Library , No server-side software support required , Make the release and exchange of source code extremely convenient . Git It's very fast , This is for things like Linux kernel It's very important for such a big project . Git The best part is its merge tracking (merge tracing) Ability .

Git It's a very popular version control system , The main difference between it and other version control systems is Git I only care about whether the whole of the file data has changed , Most other systems only care about the specific differences of file contents , This kind of system (CVS,Subversion,Perforce,Bazaar wait ) Record which files are updated each time , And which rows and what have been updated .

Git Another good thing is that most operations can be performed locally , And each local can get a complete warehouse code from the server , And you can still modify and use most of the commands when there is no network , Synchronize with the server at a convenient time , This can better realize the joint programming of many people .

Git

2002 year ,Linux The system has been developed for ten years , The big difference of code base Linus It's hard to continue to manage by hand , The brothers in the community also expressed strong dissatisfaction with this way , therefore Linus Choose a commercial version control system BitKeeper,BitKeeper The owner of BitMover The company is in a humanitarian spirit , to grant authorization Linux The community uses this version control system for free .

The great situation of stability and unity lies in 2005 It was broken in , as a result of Linux Community bull people gather , It can't help but be contaminated with the Jianghu habits of some Liangshan heroes .

Development Samba Of Andrew Try to crack BitKeeper The agreement ( He is not the only one who does this ), By BitMover The company found ( Well done monitoring !), therefore BitMover The company is angry , want Take back Linux Free use of the community .

Linus We could have asked BitMover The company apologized , Promise to discipline the brothers strictly in the future , Um. , however Linus Not ordinary people , It's impossible to apologize , Never in my life .

therefore Linus It took Two weeks Self use C Write a distributed version control system , This is it. Git! Within a month ,Linux The source code of the system has been created by Git Management of the !

cattle How do you define it ? You can experience .

Git

Git Quickly become the most popular distributed version control system , In especial 2008 year ,GitHub The website is online , It's free for open source projects Git Storage , Countless open source projects began to migrate to GitHub, Include jQuery,PHP,Ruby wait .

GitHub, Safe space for developers around the world , ad locum , You can share your code for everyone , You can also work with developers all over the world to build and improve your code . Now more and more companies are putting code in Github Server .

You can't put it down since you used it for the first time , Deeply impressed by the design philosophy , because Git It's so convenient to manage software versions .

adopt commit To study and learn how a software product starts from the beginning code base Slowly iterating into a mature product , This is the quickest way to improve your technical level .

3) Linux

Linux Timeline Linux The timeline is huge , Please copy the link below to the browser for details :
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Linux_Distribution_Timeline.svg

1991

8 month 25 Number : 21 A Finnish student, aged Linus Benedict Torvalds stay comp.os.minix The newsgroup announced that it was working on a free operating system .

9 month 1 Number : Linux 0.01 Publish... On the Internet .

1992

1 month 5 Number : Linux v0.12 release Version of the kernel to GUN GPL The agreement of . The original license forbids any commercial use . Through this change of agreement , Publish and sell modified or unmodified versions of Linux It's possible , As long as you copy these versions in the same GPL License issue , And have corresponding complete source code . In a later interview ,Linus I said something about this license change ( Give Way Linux comply with GPL Absolutely the right thing I've ever done ):

" Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did."

1 month 29 Number : Andrew S. Tanenbaum towards comp.os.minix Mailing list sent a letter called LINUX is obsolete The mail . in general , This time it was upgraded to “ Flames of war ” My argument is about Linux And kernel architecture .Tanenbaum It's argued that microkernels are more advanced than macrokernels , therefore Linux It's out of date .

4 month 5 Number : first Linux Newsgroups ,comp.os.linux from Ari Lemmke Propose and open .

5 month 21 Number : Peter MacDonald Release the first independent Linux Installation package SLS. It can be installed on floppy disk , Including more cutting-edge TCP-IP Network support and X Window System . It is recommended that at least 10M To get enough disk space to install .

1993

6 month 17 Number : Slackware Linux from Patrick Volkerding Release .Slackware Is considered to be the first to achieve widespread success Linux Distribution version , And it's still in use .

8 month 16 Number : Ian Murdock(Debian Medium ’ian’) Released the first Debian Linux Distribution version .Debian Is the most influential Linux One of the releases , yes MEPIS,Mint,Ubuntu And the originators of many other distributions .

8 month 19 Number : Matt Welsh Written 《Linux Installation and Getting Started》 The first 1 The new edition is published , This is the first book about Linux Books .

1994

3 month 14 Number : Linux kernel V1.0 Release . It supports based on i386 A single processor computer system . this 3 Over the years , The kernel code base has grown to 176,250 That's ok .

3 month 26 Number : The first phase 《Linux Journal》 Magazine distribution . The feature of this issue is the publication of an article on Linus Torvalds Interviews and some Phil Hughes, Robert “Bob” Young, Michael K. Johnson, Arnold Robbins, Matt Welsh, Ian A Articles written .

8 month 15 Number : Willian R. Della Croce, Jr. Yes “Linux” trademark ,9 Registered in June .Della Croce In don't know Linux Under the premise of financial distress in the community , To the famous “Linux company ” Wrote a letter , Ask them to do it for “Linux” Pay for trademark use . until 1997 year , The disturbance is to transfer the trademark to representatives of all petitioners and Linux Of the user Linus Torvalds And ended up .

11 month 3 Number : Red Hat Co founder of Marc Ewing It can be announced that 49.95 The retail price of the dollar gets Red Hat Software Linux Of CD-ROM and 30 Days of installation support .2012 year Red Hat Become the first company with a market value of 10 A billion dollar open source company .

1995

4 month 4 Number : Launched the first project specifically for Linux A series of trade shows and conferences , Name is Linux Expo. It's going to be in the next few years , The most popular and watched year Linux Grand meeting . The price of admission to trade shows and conferences is 4 dollar .3 After year ,Red Hat Took over the organization , And a major sponsor .

1996

5 month 9 Number : By the first Alan Cox proposal , After that, I went through Linus Torvalds improvement ,Larry Ewing stay 1996 This is what we see now. It's called Tux The mascot of . Choose penguins as Linux The idea of mascot comes from Linus Torvalds, He said that after he was bitten by a penguin, he had the characteristics of a penguin .( Is this going to be penguin ? It is estimated that the original author is naughty ?– Translation notes )

6 month 9 Number : Linux kernel V2.0 Release . This is a significant improvement over the earlier versions , This is the first stable kernel version to support multiprocessors in a single system , More processor types are also supported .Linux Since then, it has become a serious choice for many companies . You can read 1996 year 8 Month in Linux Journal The review published on Linux V2.0 To learn more about ascension .

10 month 14 Number : 1996 year Mattias Ettrich Launched KDE project , Because he was deeply influenced by Unix The pain of inconsistency in desktop applications .( Before that Unix and Linux There is no unified desktop system , Writing desktop software is very complicated – Translation notes )

1997

1 month 9 Number : first “Linux Viruses ”Bliss Found out .Bliss Do not endanger the safety of the system , It depends on people doing stupid things with privileges to infect the system , Then remind users to install only software that can verify digital signatures downloaded from reliable sites , And be sure to verify the signature before installing ( A lot of places count this as the number one 2 individual Linux Viruses , Because there was a more “ green ” The virus of – Translation notes ). “ in fact , stay Linux It might be easier to write a virus on it , because Linux It's open source. , All the source code is available . therefore , With Linux When it becomes more general and popular , We're going to see more Linux Viruses .”– come from McAfee Imagination .

1998

5 month 1 Number : Google Search engine comes out . It's not just one of the best search engines in the world , It's based on Linux Of , It's characterized by a Linux Search page for .

12 month 4 Number : A new report from IDC According to the report 1998 year Linux At least the volume of our shipment has gone up 200%, Market share has risen at least 150%.Linux The market share of is 17%, And growing at a rate that no other operating system can match .

1999

2 month 9 Number : Linux and BSD Users launched “Windows Refund day ”. Together they visited Microsoft , I hope to return them the price they bought when they bought the computer Windows The money for the license , These licenses they never used .

3 month 3 Number : Another influential desktop system has entered Linux The world of , Namely GNOME Desktop system . In many major Linux Distribution, such as Debian,Fedora,RedHad Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop in ,GNOME It's the default desktop environment .

2000

2 month 4 Number : Abreast of the times IDC The report shows that Linux Now it's in “ The most popular server operating system is 2 position ”,1999 The annual sales volume of server system accounts for 25%.Windows NT With 38% Rank No 1,NetWare With 19% In the first 3 position .

3 month 11 Number : Motorola announced the release of HA Linux. This release focuses on communications applications , The system does not shut down continuous running time requirements are very high . It also includes heat exchange capabilities and support i386 and PowerPC framework .

3 month 23 Number : Ericsson announced “Screen Phone HS210”, This one is based on Linux My touch screen phone , With email and web browsing functions . Ericsson and Opera Software The company also announced that it will install Opera My web browser .

10 month 30 Number : first Linux live The distribution is made up of Linux Consultant Klaus Knopper Release , The name is called Knoppix.

2001

1 month 3 Number : The United States NAS( National security agency ) With GPL The license was issued SELinux.SELinux Provides standards Unix Another layer of security check beyond the rights management system .

2003

3 month 6 Number : SCO Group The company announced that they were launching a campaign against IBM the height is 10 A hundred million dollar lawsuit , They claim IBM hold SCO Our trade secrets are integrated into Linux in . after SCO The company has launched a series of lawsuits , This threatens a lot of computer giants, including HP , Microsoft ,Novell,Silicon Graphics,Sun Microsystems and RedHat. This case is in Novell With the support of the company 2010 year 3 month 30 Judgment No.1 is over .( The famous SCO-Linux controversy ,SCO Claim to have System V Ownership of part of the source code ,IBM Integrate this part of the source code into Linux It's a violation of SCO Copyright . Finally, the federal court ruled that Novell It's just Unix The legal owner of a trademark .– Translation notes )

2004

10 month 20 Number : Ubuntu With an unusual version number 4.10 And weird version codes “Warty Warthog”( African Warthog with pimples ) Into everyone's life . This version number is used because the release date is 2004 year 10 month .Ubuntu The development of the Cannonical Ltd Company led , The founder of the company is Mark Shuttleworth( It's the one that doesn't get to 30 A 12-year-old billionaire , People who have a lot of money don't know how to spend it , People who can only afford to swim in space – Translation notes ).Ubuntu Although not a major contributor to the kernel , However, for Linux The popularity of desktop computers and laptops ,Ubuntu Plays an important role .

2007

6 month 6 Number : ASUS in 2007 There are two models on display at the Taipei Computer Show “ easy PC”(Eee PC):701 and 1001. The first 1 PI Yi PC What's pre installed is Xandros Linux, This is a base Debian, Lightweight, optimized for small screens Linux Distribution version .

8 month 8 Number : 2007 year Linux The foundation is run by the open source development lab (OSDL) And free standards (FSG) Joint establishment . The purpose of this foundation is to sponsor Linux founder Linus The job of . The foundation got the main Linux And open source , Including Fujitsu ,HP,IBM,Intel,NEC,Oracle,Qualcomm, Samsung and developers from all over the world .

11 month 5 Number : It's the same as what you speculated before Gphone Different ,Google Announced the formation of the open mobile phone Alliance (Open Handset Alliance) And release Android, It is called “ The first truly open integrated mobile device platform ”.

2009

1 month 29 Number : 2009 year 1 The New York Times said in May that “ Now it's expected that there will be more than 10 Hundreds of millions of people are running Ubuntu System ”.

2011

5 month 11 Number : 2011 year Google I/O The conference released Chrombook. This is a so-called cloud operating system Chrome OS Notebook .Chome OS Is based on Linux Kernel .

6 month 21 Number : Linus Torvalds Released Linux3.0 edition .

2013

12 month 13 Number : Valve The company's release is based on Linux Of SteamOS operating system , This is a video game console system .

4)《 Cathedral and market 》

Linus The invention Linux The process is a bit like the process of building a crude market into a magnificent cathedral .

《 Cathedral and market 》 This book analyzes this philosophy of design .

 Cathedral and market

There are two kinds of architecture in the world : One is the market , Open every day there , From scratch , From small to large ; The other is Cathedral , Generations have worked hard , It will take decades to build , Put into use .

When you build a new building , You can use the market model , You can also use the cathedral model .

Generally speaking , The market is characterized by open construction 、 The cost is low 、 Cycle is short 、 The quality is mediocre ; The cathedral is characterized by its closed construction 、 The high cost 、 Cycle is long 、 Excellent quality .

Eric Raymond The conclusion is that the market will become a cathedral , There are several prerequisites :

1) You can't build bazaars from scratch , You have to have an original project first .(It's fairly clear that one cannot code from the ground up in bazaar style.)2) Your original project can be flawed , But it has to work .(It can be crude, buggy, incomplete, and poorly documented. What it must not fail to do is run.)3) You have to show the user a viable prospect , And let potential partners believe that it will become a really beautiful thing in the foreseeable future .(When you start community-building, what you need to be able to present is a plausible promise, and convince potential co-developers that it can be evolved into something really neat in the foreseeable future.)4) The moderator of a project is not necessarily a genius , But he must be able to discern the good ideas of others .(it is not critical that the coordinator be able to originate designs of exceptional brilliance, but it is absolutely critical that the coordinator be able to recognize good design ideas from others.)5) The project leader must have good interpersonal relationship 、 Communication skills and charisma . That's what attracts people , Make others interested in what you do , Willing to help you .(A bazaar project coordinator or leader must have good people and communications skills.)

Eric Raymond At the same time, it also summarizes some sufficient conditions for success .

1) The project must first be of your own interest , But in the end it can be useful to others .2) Treat users as collaborators .3) Make improvements as soon as possible and often , Listen to users more .4) Robust structure is far more important than delicate design . let me put it another way , Structure comes first , Function comes second .5) Keep the project simple . When the design is perfect , It's not that we can't add anything more , It's that there's no way to reduce things .

An open project , If it is well managed and operated , Can achieve much greater success than an equivalent closed project .

3、 ... and 、 Compare

I have introduced the lives and achievements of the two great gods , Let's make a comment .

In fact, who is stronger , Whose contribution is greater , As a junior programmer , There is only worship for them , How dare you draw a conclusion that which of them is stronger , Only from their work content and main achievements to say personal views , deficiencies , Also please correct me .

1. results

First, C Dennis, the father of language • Ricci (Dennis M. Ritchie), He told the C The contribution of language is obvious to all , Don't need to say more .

Apart from C Besides the main inventors of language , And he's right Unix The operating system is known as Unix The father of . But his contribution is far from that , stay Unix After great success , They are 20 century 80 In the 1970s, we began to study a project called Plan 9 Operating system of , The purpose is to solve Unix Some of the problems in .

In the next few decades , The project evolved into a project called Inferno And a project called Limbo New language of , The language is recognized as a hot programming language Go The forerunner of .

As can be seen from the above , Dennis • Rich's contributions are manifold , In addition to programming languages, there are operating systems , That's why , He has won numerous awards , The most famous one is Turing Award (1983) and Computer Pioneer Award (1994).

Say again Linux The father of ,Linus Torvalds, His main contribution is to develop Linux The kernel of the operating system , And then open it up to the world , Finally, it formed a set of operating system which had a great influence on the computer industry , And won the Computer Pioneer Award (2014).

2005 It took two weeks to develop Git, And this software version management software has affected countless software developers around the world .

In terms of results , You two are really on a par .

2. difficulty

In terms of difficulty , Compilers are much more difficult than operating systems , and linux It's not from scratch , It's inheritance unix System kernel , Adapt it to PC Compatible machine , And we know that ,C The father of language Dennis M Ritchie It's also unix One of the creators of , Inventions C After language , He used it again himself C Write it over unix,linus Yeah, he's a little brother , It doesn't take him long to write an operating system .

modern windows、linux It feels huge , Because they're a platform , There are massive applications and middleware , The compiler feels small , But for professionals , Compilers are much more difficult than operating systems .

The operating system needs a lot of manpower to develop the above applications , It's a labor-intensive product in the software industry , And compilers are more like masterpieces , Compilers are factories that make other software , It's very demanding .

In fact, our country has been able to do the operating system for a long time ,985 Undergraduate students majoring in the university can hand in a non-commercial operating system assignment , But my compiler is still zero , I didn't write compiler after learning compiler principles .

3. Programming level

Judging from their work achievements , I think Dennis • Rich is a little more powerful , His achievements are manifold , And the key point ,Linux The prototype of the system (Unix A variation of the minix) And programming languages (C Language ) It's all from Dennis • Richie's contribution is . But if only in terms of programming ability , Up to their level, they are already very good at programming , It's hard to distinguish between !

C The father of language is equivalent to building an excavator by oneself . People can do what they can with his excavator .

linux My father is equivalent to taking the lead in digging several foundation pits , And then there's a big ticket with bricks and tiles 、 reinforced 、 Concrete partners build a building together . And because it's linus It's the leader , So the name of the building comes from him, and he is the doorman .

Besides, , Build a building ( Write operating system ) Such thing , Comrade rich has done it for a long time , And it's done with a home-made machine and two small partners !

It should be said that Dennis M Ritchie In front of Linus It's my brother .

4. Direct contribution to society

Both of you have made great contributions to social progress . If you insist on comparison , Personally feel linux and git The direct contribution of is greater .

There's nothing to say , Just walk around the major software companies , There's almost no need to Linux Of .

Linux It's used in a wide range of fields :

  1. Linux Development in the field of servers

With the increasing influence of open source software in the world ,Linux Server operating system occupies more and more market share in the whole market structure of server operating system , It has formed a large-scale market application situation . And maintain a rapid growth rate . Especially in the government 、 Finance 、 Agriculture 、 traffic 、 Telecommunications and other key areas of the country . Besides , in consideration of Linux And the support of the relevant national policies ,Linux Server products will definitely impact the larger server market .

According to the statistics of authoritative departments , at present Linux In the field of server has occupied 75% Market share , meanwhile ,Linux In the rapid rise of the server market , It has caused worldwide attention IT The industry is highly concerned about , And with a strong momentum to become the backbone in the field of server operating system .

  1. Linux Development in the desktop area

In recent years , Especially in the domestic market ,Linux The development trend of desktop operating system is very rapid . If Qilin wins the bid in China Linux、 The red flag Linux、 depth Linux And other system software manufacturers have launched Linux Desktop operating system , Already in the government 、 Enterprises 、OEM It has been widely used in many fields . in addition SUSE、Ubuntu They have also launched a series of products based on Linux The desktop system of , especially Ubuntu Linux, Has accumulated a large number of community users . however , From the overall function of the system 、 In terms of performance ,Linux Desktop system and Windows There is still a certain gap between the series , Mainly in the ease of use of the system 、 System management 、 Hardware and software compatibility 、 The richness of the software .

  1. Linux Development in the field of Mobile Embedded

Linux Low cost 、 Powerful customization and good portability , bring Linux It is also widely used in embedded system , at present Linux To be widely used in mobile phones 、 The tablet 、 Router 、 TV and video games, etc . Widely used on mobile devices Android The operating system is created in Linux On top of the kernel . at present ,Android It has become the most popular smartphone operating system in the world , According to the 2015 The latest statistics of authoritative departments in ,Android The global market share of operating system has reached 84.6%

Besides , Cisco also uses custom firewalls and routers Linux, Alibaba cloud has also developed a system based on Linux Operating system of “YunOS”, For smartphones 、 Tablets and Internet TV ; Common digital video recorders 、 Stage lighting control systems are gradually adopting customized versions Linux To achieve , And all this is due to Linux And the power of open source

  1. Linux In cloud computing / The development of big data

The rapid development of the Internet industry , Make cloud computing 、 The formation and rapid development of big data industry , Cloud computing 、 Big data as a platform based on Open Source Software ,Linux It's a core advantage ; According to the Linux Foundation research ,86% Companies have used Linux The operating system does Cloud Computing 、 The construction of big data platform , at present ,Linux Has begun to replace Unix Become the most popular Cloud Computing 、 Big data platform operating system

  1. At home Linux The development of operating system

At present, China has set foot in Linux Operating system development in addition to schools 、 Outside R & D institutions , The main Linux The release includes the red flag 、 Winning the bid 、 Create together 、 xinhua 、 And so on , Both desktop and server versions are available ; All domestic distributions are based on international community versions , Based on the results of the international community , Some work has been done on interface customization , Not mastering the core technology , And with the international Linux There is a technical gap between operating system distributions , Lack of technology accumulation , face Linux Lack of development potential and so on

  1. Abroad Linux The development of operating system

Abroad Linux The development of operating system The major foreign distributions include redhat、ubuntu、Suse etc. , Two different versions of desktop and server are available . Server domain Linux The development of operating system is relatively mature , Desktop development is relatively slow , The embedded field is developing rapidly .

It can be said that our life has been unable to leave Linux, Most software engineers use Linux, But remember that it's all built on C On the basis of language .

5. Personal understanding

Actually 2 People don't come from 0 At the beginning , One is based on B Language and unix The demand of the system creates c Language ,

One is based on minix and unix Thought and the opportunity at that time have been developed linux. They all succeeded on the shoulders of their predecessors .

In Mr. Peng's heart ,Dennis Ritchie More importantly , Because he uses C Language opens up a new world , From birth until now , I've always been in the top three of the language list , All quick 50 Years. , We're still using it .

and Linux The share of servers and mobile terminals is too high , Direct contribution more , and linus The most powerful point is that he has coordinated the development and maintenance of millions of developers around the world linux, It's more difficult .

Mr. Peng may have more admiration for linus A little more , Especially the other one “Talk is cheap!Show me your code!”!

Linus Torvalds Angry at NVIDIA Let's enjoy grandmaster's sexy middle finger !!

To get e-books 《 Cathedral and market 》, Follow the background reply [ Cathedral and market ].

Some of the pictures are from internet infringement .
Reference resources :
You know Tencent technology engineering
Linus Autobiography 《just for fun》