Linux Is a set of free and open source classes Unix operating system , Born in 1991 year 10 month 5 Japan （ For the first time ）, By Finnish students Linus Torvalds And later joined a large number of fans to jointly develop and complete .
Linux It's based on POSIX and Unix Multiple users of 、 multitasking 、 Support for multithreading and multithreading CPU Operating system of . It can run the main Unix Tool software 、 Application and network protocols , Can support 32 Bit and 64 Bit hardware .Linux Inherited Unix Design idea with network as the core , It is a multi-user network operating system with stable performance .
Linux There are many different versions , But they all use it Linux kernel .Linux It can be installed in various computer hardware devices , such as ： mobile phone 、 The tablet 、 Router 、 Video game console 、 Desktop computer 、 Mainframe and supercomputers .
Strictly speaking ,Linux The word itself only means Linux kernel , But actually people are used to using Linux To describe the whole based on Linux kernel , And use GNU Operating systems for engineering tools and databases .
1.1969 Years ago ：Bell,MIT And GE Of "Mutics" System
Bell： Bell LABS , Affiliated to the AT&T company
GE： General Electric Company
Mutics： Yes " Most of the " It means , The purpose is to let multiple people use the resources of a host at the same time （ Multi user ）
·60 s ,MIT Develop a time-sharing operating system , At most at the same time 30 A terminal （ Technical limitations ） Connect a mainframe , So that more users can use the resources of the same expensive host at the same time ;
·1965 year ,Bell、MIT And GE Co sponsored Mutics project , The purpose is to enable mainframe to provide 300 More than one terminal to connect to the mainframe ;
·1969 Around the year ,Mutics Lack of project funding , Although the project is still going on , however Bell Finally quit the project ;
·Mutics The project was successful in the end , It's just that it's not taken seriously （ Demand question ）.
2.1969 year ：Ken Thompson The small File Server System
Thompson： Members of Bell Labs , I was involved in Mutics Project development
·Mutics The project has trained excellent talents ,Thompson It's one of them ;
·Thompson from Mutics A lot of ideas came out of the project ;
· For transplantation " Space tourism " game ,Thompson take Mutics Simplify the huge and complex system in the project , stay PDP-7 A set of kernel programs are written in assembly language on the host computer 、 Kernel utilities and a small file system , go by the name of Unics（UNIX The prototype of the ）;
·Thompson Developed file system concept ：
a. All programs or system devices are files
b. No matter build editor or attached file , The program is written for one purpose only , It's about achieving your goals effectively
3.1973 year ：UNIX The official was born ,Ritchie Wait for someone to C Language writes the first formal UNIX kernel
assembly language ： Be specific , Hardware related ,Unics It is developed by assembly language
B Language ： High-level language , But the performance of the compiled kernel is not very good
C Language ： High-level language , from Dennis Ritchie take B The language is rewritten
·Thompson Developed Unics Practical , stay Bell It's widely spread inside ;
· At that time, the computer machine architecture （ Hardware architecture ） It's all different , to Unics Porting brings some complexity ;
·Ritchie take B The language is rewritten as C Language , And with Thompson cooperation , use C Language to recompile and compile Unics The kernel of ;
· Release UNIX The official version of ;
· Because of the characteristics of high-level languages ,UNIX It's easy to port to different machines （ Different hosts with different hardware architectures ）.
4.1977 year ： Important UNIX Branch ——BSD Be born
Portability ：UNIX Develop in a high-level language , The theory is portable , That is, as long as we get UNIX Source code , Modify for different host characteristics , That is, it can be transplanted to different hosts
Berkeley： Berkeley, California
Bill Joy：Sun Company founder
Berkeley Softsare Distribution： namely BSD
FreeBSD： from BSD It's a new edition , Can be installed in x86 Hardware architecture
· because UNIX Portability of ,1973 After year ,Bell To work with the academic community to develop UNIX（ Academic circles conduct academic research , Computers are often needed , What was lacking at that time was a good operating system ）;
·Bell And Berkeley Made important contacts ;
·Berkeley Of Bill Joy obtain UNIX After the kernel source code of , Change it to a version suitable for your own machine , Add a lot of tools and compilers , And named it Berkeley Softsare Distribution, namely BSD;
·Bell Joy Create and do Sun company , With its modified kernel （BSD） To start your own business UNIX Version development .
5.1979 year ： Important System V Architecture and copyright notice
agreement ： This refers to the general production protocol of hardware architecture , At that time, computer hardware companies didn't have the concept , So the hardware we produce needs to be right UNIX System
x86： Early personal computer architecture , Under this framework CPU No multi tasking ability
Purebred UNIX： finger BSD as well as System V
·UNIX High portability 、 Powerful performance 、 No copyright dispute , Commercial companies develop UNIX operating system , Launch your own host matching " Home " Of UNIX operating system ;
· The hardware developed by these companies doesn't follow a unified protocol （ Not then ）, Developed UNIX The operating system and related software can only run on the host computer with its own hardware architecture ;
· These companies have ：AT&T、IBM、HP、DEC、Sun、Cray etc. ;
·UNIX Emphasis on multiple users 、 multitasking , because x86 Characteristics of , No one wants to transplant UNIX To x86 On the architecture host ;
·AT&T To launch the System V The seventh edition UNIX, Support x86 Architecture of personal computers ;
·AT&T For business reasons , Release its Seventh Edition UNIX when , Put forward " Do not provide source code to students ", That is to say UNIX Copyright recovery .
6.1984 One of the years ：x86 Architecturally Minix The birth of the operating system
Minix： Mini UNIX operating system
·System V Every seven editions of the copyright notice , It affects teaching UNIX The knowledge of kernel source code Andrew S. Tanenbaum professor
· For the convenience of teaching , Professor Tan Bangning and UNIX Compatible Mini UNIX operating system Minix;
·Minix Only through disk / Tape buying , But provide Minix Source code ;
· Professor Tan Bangning did not continue to develop Minix, Just a light touch .
7.1984 Year two ：GNU Project and FSF Foundation establishment
Richard Mathew Stallman： Stoneman
GNU Project sponsor , Draft GPL
GNU project ： Create a freedom 、 Open UNIX operating system （Free UNIX）
GPL：,General Public License,GNU General public license for , avoid GNU Free software is used commercially to launch
AI Lab.：*** The famous AI Lab in the world ,1971 Sturman entered the laboratory in
Lisp：MIT Developed operating system , It's proprietary software , In the early days of stohmann Lab That is to use it to develop software
Free Software Foundation： namely FSF, Free Software Foundation -- An environment of free sharing
· In his early years, stowman entered AI Lab. in , emphasize " Share ", There are no patents for software ;
·AI Lab. It's a question of management , Leading to excellence *** Leave and join a commercial company to develop software ;
· Stoneman insists on sharing 、 Free to stay , But realize that an open group is needed to work together .
-- Use UNIX The development phase
· Replacement of laboratory hardware , It made Stuart give up Lisp, And get in touch with UNIX;
·UNIX At that time, although it was also proprietary software , But compared with Lisp, Its architecture is relatively open ;
· Stuart will be in Lisp The software written on is transplanted to UNIX On , And publish the source code .
-GNU The promotion of the project
·1984 It's time for Stoneman to start GNU project , The aim is to create a freedom 、 Open UNIX operating system ;
· Because at that time, it was only Thoman , And it's not easy to create an operating system , The difficulties ;
· Stohmann takes " Develop first UNIX Software on the operating system " The strategy of , These software are called GNU Software ;
· Developed Emacs： Program editor （ Non compiler ）, Check the program syntax ;
· In order to develop UNIX Compiler under （ It's very important ）, Stuart uses Emacs Money from selling , establish FSF;
·FSF Ask more engineers and volunteers to write software ;
· And then develop important software ：Gcc,C Language compiler
8.1985 year ：GNU General public license for ——GPL
· Draft GPL, To avoid GNU Free software is used by others to become proprietary software
·GNU Important free software for the project ：
GNU C Library（GLIBC）
· These softwares enable software developers to develop software better , And that's how the free software community grew ;
· The software is still in those licensed UNIX Working on the platform , There was no " The freedom of the UNIX kernel " There is , until Linux appear .
9.1988 year ： Graphic interface XFree86 project
XFree86：, Non profit organizations that develop user graphical interfaces , namely X Window System + Free + x86 For short
· The demand of user graphical interface is increasing ;
·MIT stay 1984 We have cooperated with a third party to develop X Window System;
·MIT stay 1988 A non-profit organization was founded in XFree86.
10.1991 year ： Dutch College Students Linus Torvalds A piece of news from
Linus Torvalds It's called Linux The father of , Famous computer programmer 、***.Linux The inventor of the kernel and the collaborators of the project . He used his personal time and equipment to create one of the most popular operating system cores in the world , He is now employed by the open source development laboratory （OSDL：Open Source Development Labs, Inc）, Make every effort to develop Linux kernel .
·1991 year ,Torvalds stay BBS Post message on , Call it bash,gcc And other tools to write a small kernel program , And can be in Intel Of 386 Running on the machine .
The origin of penguins
1994 In published Linux The official core 1.0 When , You have to Linus Torvalds Think of a mascot , He remembered being bitten by penguins in a zoo in Australia , Just use penguins as mascots ！
It's easier to accept that ： Penguins represent the South Pole , And Antarctica is a piece of land in the world , It doesn't belong to any country . in other words Linux Do not belong to
Any commercial company , It's a technological achievement that everyone can share .
a sheet Linux Basic thought map