The way to learn java IO stream and XML

Xiaobai learning java 2021-05-04 14:54:42
way learn java io stream

In fact, before I study database , Data visualization , It used to be io+ Regular expressions + String processing and so on , Dare to believe ?io Operation is very important !!!

1、IO summary

IO:Input( Input : Read files from disk into memory ) | Output( Write data in memory to disk );

file : The organizational unit of data on disk ( A bunch of bytes of data )

flow (Stream): Change static byte data in disk into byte data in flow ;( A sequence of bytes forms a stream )

All interfaces and classes for reading and writing files are placed in In bag ;

2、File class

Detect files | Folder information , Further to the document | Folder operation ;

File : Get information about the file | establish | Delete | rename | Move , Wait for the operation

To directory : Provide deletion | Create a directory and get all the files and folders under the directory

Get all the resources in the specified directory ( Files or folders -- Recursive get )

public static void getFileAndDirectory(File path) {
File[] files = path.listFiles();
for(File f :files) {
if(f.isDirectory()) {
// Print the catalog Information ;
// And recursively call ;
}else {
}catch(Exception e){}
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3、IO flow

A、 Byte stream 【 important 】

Read and write to the file, the lowest level of , Byte stream can be used for any format To operate on ;

public abstract class InputStream : The byte stream parent of the read operation ( abstract class )
public class FileInputStream extends InputStream ;
-- FileInputStream
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 One byte can be read from the stream at a time (read Method ), If you return -1, Indicates that you have reached the end of the stream ( After reading )
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 Batch read byte stream data :read(byte[] data) | read(byte[] data,int startindex,int len)
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Byte write stream

public abstract class OutputStream
public class FileOutputStream extends OutputStream
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write(byte[] datas)
write(int data)
write(byte[] datas,int startindex,int len)
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How to copy a file

 // Copy file ;
public static void copy(String src,String dest) {
InputStream in = null;
OutputStream out = null;
try {
//1. Create a read | Write stream objects
in = new FileInputStream(src);
out = new FileOutputStream(dest);
// How much at a time ? -- 4k |8k;
byte[] buffer =new byte[1024*4];
int len = -1;
while((!=-1) { //read The return value of the method is the length of the actual read stream ;
// take buffer The data in is written to the output stream ;
}catch (IOException e) {
}finally {
// Be sure to turn off the output stream first , Turn off the input stream ;
if(out!=null) {
try {
} catch (IOException e) {
if(in!=null) {
try {
} catch (IOException e) {
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B、 Character stream [ important ]

Read and write to disk text file , It can be realized with byte stream , But it's not very convenient ;SUN A stream of design majors ( Character stream ), Read and write files in text format , Relative byte stream , It's more convenient ; To provide efficiency , Use it again SUN Designed buffer stream

Read through character stream Text format file ( Can't read image file through character stream , Sound files , Video files, etc )

public abstract class Reader
public class FileReader extends InputStreamReader extends Reader
read(char[] data) | read(char[] data,int index,int len)
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public abstract class Writer
public class FileWriter extends OutputStreamWriter extends Writer
write(int c) | writer(String str)
writer(char[] chars) | writer(char[] chars,int index,int len)
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C、 Character buffer stream [ important ]

Character buffer stream can only buffer character stream , The character buffer stream has 2 individual :BufferedReader , BufferedWriter

public class BufferedReader extends Reader
public class BufferedWriter extends Writer
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D、 Standard input stream and standard standby output stream [ understand ] : Get keyboard data ;
System.out: Output --- Monitor | Console
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public final class System {
public final static InputStream in = null; Keyboard data
public final static PrintStream out = null;
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E、 Converted flow

Stream bytes become Character stream ( A one-way )

public class InputStreamReader extends Reader
public class OutputStreamWriter extends Writer
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F、 Object flow

Object flow : How to persist an object ( The role of object flow )

serialize : Turn objects into streams , Used for storage or network transmission ;

Deserialization : Turn the data in the stream into objects

** notes :** Objects created by a class should be serializable , This class must be implemented Serializable Interface ( It's a sign , There's no design )

public class ObjectOutputStream extends OutputStream
public class ObjectInputStream extends InputStream
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transient : If an attribute does not need to be held , Just add this logo
private transient String nick;
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G、 Data flow

Data flow : Persisting data and strings of basic data types ;

public class DataInputStream extends FilterInputStream extends InputStream
public class DataOutputStream extends FilterOutoputStream extends OutputStream
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4、XML[ important ]

XML:Extensible Markup Language ( Extensible markup language ),xml It's a plain text file , Relative to text files , The content of a document is usually wrapped in labels ( Easy to parse ); XML In the project, it is mainly used to store configuration information ( Every project has a configuration file (xml file ))

XML Document function : Store data ( Project configuration information )

XML Documentation specifications :

  • The first 1 Behavior document declaration ( The writing is fixed , You don't need to write it , Development tools automatically generate )
  • xml There is only one root element ( node )
  • label ( Elements ) It needs to be wrapped in a pair of angle brackets ; Labels usually appear in pairs , The start tag is only different from the end tag “/"
  • xml case-sensitive ( It's usually in lowercase )
  • Elements can have attributes , Multiple attributes need to be separated by spaces , Property values need to be enclosed in double quotation marks ( Attributes need to be placed in the start tag )

XML The document is general 3 Three ways of writing

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<name> Zhang Er </name>
<job>C The programmer </job>
<nick> Senior programmer </nick>
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<user name=" Zhang Yi " job=" rookie " nick=" Junior programmer " email="" />
<user name=" Zhang Er " job=" veteran " nick=" Senior programmer " email=""/>
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<user id="1">
<name> Zhang Yi </name>
<job> The programmer </job>
<nick> senior </nick>
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analysis XML : stay JDK in SUN A set of classes and interfaces are designed , Used to resolve XML file ( In the book );SUN Analysis of design XML It's not very convenient to use , So in practice , General third party parsing components (jar) ---- DOM4J

DOM4J Core components (org.dom4j |
SAXReader : Reader
Document:XML Document class
Element : XML Elements
XMLWriter : Write data class
OutputFormat: Format class
DocumentHelper:Document Helper
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Default , Without adding any constraints XML The documentation is arbitrary ( Any tag name , The label design included in the label is also random ), The biggest drawback of this : It's not easy to parse ( You can't write a program to parse an arbitrary structure XML file ), Disordered document structure , So we need a structure determined XML file ----- To current XML Design document structure **( constraint )** ------ at present , The design of document structure can have 2 Ways of planting

DTD:(Document Type Definition) It's a set of defining grammar rules ; DTD It can be written inside the document ( Inside DTD), It can also be written outside the document ( external DTD), To the outside DTD, Just bring it in the current document

The grammar introduced :

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE users SYSTEM "txl.dtd" >
SYSTEM: Express private ownership DTD , At present DTD Only for this project ( One of them XML file )
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE configuration
PUBLIC "-// Config 3.0//EN"
PUBLIC : Public ( All projects can introduce this constraint ), Open DTD Generally used in the framework
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understand DTD The grammar of ( How to write a DTD)

<!ELEMENT users (user*)> :ELEMENT Element settings ( The root element is users, The root element child element name is user, Number 0 One or more )
<!ELEMENT user(name,job?,email*) :user Elements have 3 Sub elements ,name The element must have ,job 0 A or 1 individual ,email0 One or more
<!ELEMENT name (#PCDATA)> name Type of element #PCDATA: Indicates the character type
<!ELEMENT email (#PCDATA)>
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XML Schema :

XML framework , relative DTD,Schema The design provided is more complex , More comprehensive . Schema The constraint itself is also a xml file (xsd)

<schema xmlns=""
xmlns:tns="" elementFormDefault="qualified">
xmlns="" : Set the name space from which the element type of this file comes ( Value cannot be modified )
targetNamespace="" : To introduce this schema Of xml The development of file service
elementFormDefault="qualified" : Set whether the element defaults to a namespace
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element : Define the element
complexType: Define composite elements | Complex elements
sequence: The elements appear in sequence
minOccurs="0" : It's the smallest one
maxOccurs="unbounded" : The biggest online
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xsi:schemaLocation="http://localhost/txl txl.xsd ">
xmlns="http://localhost/txl" Value and targetNamespace The value is consistent.
xmlns:xsi="" : tell xml Parser , Ben xml Use one xmlschema example
xsi:schemaLocation="http://localhost/txl txl.xsd " :schema Address
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5、 Layered development [ important ]

Classes in a normal project don't go into a package , The main management is not convenient , So in the actual project , Classes are always based on functional Subcontract Management --- Layered design idea ( branch 3 layer )

The presentation layer : Display data ( forms | Webpage | Console )

Business logic layer : Business logic judgment ( Sign in ) ; If the business layer has no business processing , The business layer just plays the role of data transmission ( Baton )

The data layer : Interacting with files or databases ( Complete data persistence or read data from files and databases )

stay JAVA In the project design of , Layering is reflected through subcontracting ;

本文为[Xiaobai learning java]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢

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