Linux Operation control

The concept of job control

Interactive shell The basic purpose of is to read commands from the user terminal , And create processes that execute the programs specified by these commands .
A single command may run only one process , But a command usually uses multiple processes . If in shell Use in command “ |” Operator , You will explicitly request several processes in your own process . however , Even if only one program is running , It can also use multiple processes internally . for example , Single compile command ( for example :“cc -c foo.c”) There are usually four processes . If you run make Its job is to run other programs in a separate process .

Processes that belong to a single command are called process groups or jobs (job), thus , You can operate on all processes at once . for example , Input Control-C Will send SIGINT Terminate all processes in the foreground process group .

conversation (session) It's a bigger set of processes . Usually , All processes generated by a single login belong to the same session .

Each process belongs to a process group . When a process creates , It becomes the same process group and session as its parent process (session) Members of . Can pass setsid Function to put it in another process group , If the process group belongs to the same session .

Usually , The new session is created by the system login program , conversation leader(session leader) Is to run the user login shell The process of .

Support job control shell Jobs that can use the terminal at any time must be arranged . Otherwise, there may be multiple jobs trying to read from the terminal at one time , And for which process should receive user input . To avoid that ,shell A protocol must be used with the terminal driver .

shell Only one process can be given unlimited access to the control terminal at a time . This is called the foreground job of the control terminal (foreground job). Executed without access to the terminal , from shell Other process groups managed by the program are called background jobs (background jobs).

If a background job needs to read from its control terminal , The terminal driver stops ; If set TOSTOP Pattern , Also used to write . Users can type SUSP(control-z) Character to stop the foreground job , The program can send SIGSTOP Signal to stop any operation .shell My duty is to inform when the operation will stop , Inform the user , It also provides a mechanism that allows users to continue to stop jobs interactively and switch jobs before the foreground and background .

Process control terminal

One of the properties of a process is its control terminal . use fork The created child process controls the terminal from its parent process . such , All processes in the session will be removed from the session leader(session leader) Inherit control terminal . A session with terminal control leader(session leader) Called the control process of the terminal .

When a single process calls setsid When you become the leader of a new conversation , It will be disconnected from its control terminal .

Access control terminal

The process in the foreground job of the control terminal can have unlimited access to the terminal . Background processes don't .

When a process in a background job attempts to read from its control terminal , Usually... Is sent to the process group SIGTTIN The signal . He usually causes all processes in the group to stop ( Unless they process the signal and don't stop on their own ). however , If the read process ignores or blocks this signal , The read will fail , And display EIO error .

Again , When a process in a background job attempts to write to its control terminal , The default behavior is to send SIGTTOU The signal . however , The behavior can be marked by the local mode of TOSTOP Bit to modify ( See local mode ). If this bit is not set ( default setting ), Then it is always allowed to write to the control terminal without sending a signal . If SIGTTOU The signal is ignored or blocked by the write process , Write is also allowed .

Orphan progress group (Orphaned Process Groups)

When the control process terminates , Its terminal will become idle , And you can set up a new session on it .

To prevent problems , The session will be leader Process groups that continue to run after termination are marked as orphan process groups .

When a process is organized into an isolated group , Will be sent to the child processes under it SIGHUP The signal . Usually , This leads to the termination of the process . however , If the program ignores this signal or creates a handler for it , Even if its control process is terminated , It can also continue to run as if it were in an isolated process group . But it still can't access the terminal .

Job control command

Through the job control, you can put the job on the front desk , backstage , Stop or start the job

command describe
jobs List all the commands
bg %n Put the current task or the specified task in the background ,n Is a task ID
fg % Put the current or specified job to the foreground ,n It's homework ID
Control-Z Stop the foreground job and put it as a stopped job in the background

Reference resources