Java programmers learn Vue from scratch

Yang Linwei 2021-06-23 21:21:49
java programmers learn vue scratch

1. Preface

Statement : This article is reproduced in the video , Video address :

The front end has evolved to the present , Various technical frameworks have emerged one after another , As a developer, you have to do some front-end work , So what is the architecture of the whole front end ? Let's review .

2. Three elements of front end

  • HTML( structure ): Hypertext markup language (Hyper Text Markup Language), Determine the structure and content of a web page
  • CSS( performance ): Cascading style sheets (Cascading Style Sheets), Set the presentation style of the web page
  • JavaScript( Behavior ): Is a weakly typed scripting language , Its source code does not need to be compiled , It's interpreted and run by the browser , Used to control the behavior of web pages .

2.1 HTML

HTML be called Hypertext Markup language , It's an iconic language . It combines through a series of tags , Make up a page with different structure ! About html Tag learning can go to Novice tutorial Study , No more details here !

2.2 CSS

CSS Cascading style sheets It's also a markup language , It's not a programming language , So you can't customize variables , Can't quote, etc , In other words, it doesn't have any syntax support , Its main defects are as follows :

  • Grammar is not strong enough , For example, you can't nest writing , As a result, many repetitive selectors need to be written in modular development ;
  • There is no variable and reasonable style reuse mechanism , So that the logically related attribute values must be repeated in the form of literal quantity , It's hard to To maintain ;

As a result, we have increased a lot of workload in our work for no reason . To solve this problem , Front end developers use a method called 【CSS The preprocessor 】 Tools for , Provide CSS Missing style layer reuse mechanism 、 Reduce redundant code , Improve the maintainability of style code sex . Greatly improve the front-end development efficiency in style .

2.3 CSS The preprocessor

CSS The preprocessor Defined a new language , The basic idea is this , In a special programming language , by CSS Added some programming features , take CSS Generate files as targets , Then developers just use this language to do CSS Coding of . It's easy to change into popular If you understand it, it means “ In a special programming language , Conduct Web Page style design , And then through the compiler to normal CSS file , For project use ”.

frequently-used CSS The preprocessor :

  • SASS: be based on Ruby, Through server processing , Powerful . The resolution efficiency is high . Need to learn Ruby Language , It's more difficult to get started than LESS.
  • LESS: be based on NodeJS, Through client processing , Easy to use . Functional ratio SASS Simple , The analytical efficiency is also lower than SASS, But it's enough in actual development , So our back office staff, if they need to , It is recommended to use LESS.

2.4 JavaScript

JavaScript A weakly typed scripting language , Its source code does not need to be compiled before it is sent to the client to run , Instead, the text will be formatted as words The code is sent to the browser and interpreted by the browser .

Native Native JS Development means let's follow 【ECMAScript】 Standard development methods , Abbreviation is ES, The feature is that all browsers support .

2.4.1 ES standard

ES The standard has been released in the following versions :

  • ES3
  • ES4( Inside , Not officially released )
  • ES5( Full browser support )
  • ES6( Commonly used , Current mainstream version :webpack Package as ES5 Support !)
  • ES7
  • ES8
  • ES9( Draft stage )

from ES6 Start releasing a version every year , Take the year as the name , The difference is to gradually add new features .

2.4.2 TypeScript Microsoft standards

TypeScript Microsoft standards : Is a free and open source programming language developed by Microsoft . It is JavaScript A superset of , And essentially to this Languages add optional static types and class based object-oriented programming . By Anders · hejlsberg (C#、Delphi、 TypeScript The father of ;.NET founder ) The dominant .

2.5 JavaScript frame

2.5.1 jQuery library

You are most familiar with JavaScript library , The advantage is that it simplifies DOM operation , The disadvantage is that DOM Too often , Affect front end performance ; stay The front end uses it just for compatibility IE6、7、8;

2.5.2 Angular library

Google The front end framework of the acquisition , By a group of Java Programmer development , Its characteristic is that the backstage MVC Mode moved to the front and added mode The idea of block development , Working with Microsoft , use TypeScript Grammar development ; Friendly to back office programmers , Not very friendly to front-end programmers good ; The biggest drawback is that the version iteration is unreasonable ( Such as :1 generation -> 2 generation , Except for the name , It's basically two things ; Has launched Angular6).

2.5.3 React

Facebook Produce , A high-performance JS The front frame ; It's characterized by new concepts 【 fictitious DOM】 Used to reduce real DOM operation , Simulate... In memory DOM operation , Effectively improve the front-end rendering efficiency ; The disadvantage is that it's complicated to use , Because you need to learn a little extra door 【JSX】 Language ;

2.5.4 Vue

A progressive JavaScript frame , The so-called progressive means to gradually realize new features , Such as modular development 、 route 、 state Management and other new features .

It is characterized by a combination of Angular( modularization ) and React( fictitious DOM) The advantages of ;

2.5.5 Axios Front end communication framework

because Vue The boundaries are clear , Just to deal with DOM, So they don't have the ability to communicate , At this point, you need Use a communication framework to interact with the server ; Of course, you can also choose to use jQuery Provided AJAX Communications functions ;

2.5.6 JavaScript Building tools

  • Babel : JS Compiler tools , It's mainly used for things that browsers don't support ES New characteristics , For example, for compiling TypeScript
  • WebPack: Module packer , The main function is packaging 、 Compress 、 Merge and load in order

2.6 NodeJs

Node.js It's based on Chrome V8 Engine JavaScript Running environment , To put it bluntly, it is running on the server side JavaScript;

In order to facilitate development, front-end personnel also need to master certain back-end technology , But we Java The backstage staff know that the backstage knowledge system is extremely huge and complex , So in order to facilitate the front-end staff to develop background applications , And that's what happened NodeJS Technology like this .NodeJS The author of has claimed to give up NodeJS( It is said that the architecture is not well done, coupled with the cumbersome node_modules, Maybe the author is upset ), Start developing a new architecture Deno ( What is? Deno? Follow Node.js What's the difference ?)

Since it's backstage Technology , It certainly needs frameworks and project management tools ,NodeJS The framework and project management tools are as follows :

  • Express: NodeJS frame
  • Koa: Express Simplified edition
  • NPM: Integrated project management tools , Be similar to Maven
  • YARN: NPM alternatives , Be similar to Maven and Gradle The relationship between

3. Commonly used UI frame

  • Ant-Design: Produced by Alibaba , be based on React Of UI frame
  • ElementUI、MintUi、iview、ic: Are you hungry , be based on Vue Of UI frame
  • Bootstrap: Twitter Launched an open source toolkit for front-end development
  • AmazeUI: Also called “ sister UI”, a HTML5 Cross screen front frame
  • Layui: lightweight framework (Layer)
  • Ant-Design

3.1 Ant-Design

Ant-Design Is based on react A liberation of development ui And front end tools , It provides consistent design to facilitate our rapid development and reduce unnecessary design and code , A lot of practical react The developers of the framework are already using Ant-design 了 , And it's in github Upper star It's already tens of thousands , It shows the degree of heat .

  • Ant-Design The goal is also to improve users 、 The experience and happiness of developers and so on .
  • Ant-Design It's a wonderful design ,vue Of iview It's imitation To achieve

3.2 ElementUi

ElementUi Is the front-end open source maintenance hungry VueUI Component library , The components are complete, covering all the components needed by the background , The document is explained in detail , There are plenty of examples . Mainly used for development PC End page , It's a high quality VueUI Component library !

3.3 MintUi

MintUi It's a front-end team based on Vue.js Mobile component library of , The components are relatively single , The function is simple and easy to use !

3.4 iview

iview It's a powerful base on Vue Of UI library , There are many practical basic components than elementui The components are richer , Mainly for PC The middle and back products of the interface . Use single file Vue Component development mode be based on npm + webpack + babel Development , Support ES2015 High-quality 、 Rich in functions Amicable API, Use space freely and flexibly .

remarks : Belongs to the front-end mainstream framework , It can be considered to use , The main feature is that the mobile terminal supports more

3.5 ICE

Flying ice The Alibaba team is based on React/Angular/Vue In the background application solutions , Inside Alibaba , There has been a 270 many One from almost all BU The project is using . Flying ice contains a complete link from the design end to the development end , Help users quickly build Belongs to own in the backstage application .

remarks : The main components are React Mainly , Yes Vue Our support is not perfect , It's still in the wait-and-see stage

3.6 VantUI

Vant UI It's implemented by youzan front-end team based on the unified specification of youzan Vue Component library , A complete set is provided UI Basic components and business groups Pieces of . adopt Vant, Can quickly build a unified style page , Improve development efficiency .

3.7 AtUi

at-ui It's based on Vue 2.x The front end of the UI Component library , Mainly used for rapid development PC Website products . It provides a set of npm + webpack + babel Front end development workflow ,CSS The style is independent , Even with different frameworks, the implementation can be unified UI style .

3.8 CubeUI

cube-ui It is based on Vue.js Implementation of the elegant mobile component library . Support on-demand introduction and post compilation , Lightweight and flexible ; Extensibility is strong , It is convenient to realize secondary development based on existing components .

3.9 Flutter

Flutter It's the mobile end of Google UI frame , It can be built in a very short time Android and iOS High quality primary applications .Flutter Works with existing code , It's used by developers and organizations around the world , also Flutter It's free and open source .

remarks :Google Produce , The main feature is to quickly build native APP Applications , For mixed applications, the framework is required

3.10 Ionic

Ionic Is both a CSS The framework is also a Javascript UI library ,Ionic It is the most potential one at present HTML5 Mobile application development frame . adopt SASS Building the application , It provides a lot of UI Components to help developers develop powerful applications . It USES JavaScript MVVM The framework and AngularJS/Vue To enhance the application . Provide two-way binding of data , Use it to become Web Common choice with mobile developers .

3.11 mpvue

mpvue It's a use developed by meituan Vue.js Develop a front-end framework for applets , At present, we support Wechat applet 、 Baidu intelligent Xiaocheng order , Headline widget and Alipay applet . Based on the framework of Vue.js, Modified runtime framework runtime And code compilers compiler Realization , Make it run in a small program environment , Thus, it introduces Vue.js Development experience .

remarks : complete Vue Development experience , And support multi platform small program development , Recommended

3.12 WeUi

WeUI It is a set of basic style library consistent with wechat native visual experience , The official design team of wechat is responsible for the design of wechat website and wechat applet Tailored , Make the user's use perception more unified . contain button、cell、dialog、toast、article、icon And so on plain .

4. The evolution of front and rear separation

To reduce the complexity of development , The starting point is the back end , such as :Struts、SpringMVC And so on , It's the back end MVC Time ;

With SpringMVC Process as an example :
 Insert picture description here

  1. Initiate request to front end controller (DispatcherServlet)
  2. Front end controller request HandlerMapping lookup Handler( According to xml To configure 、 Annotation to find )
  3. Processor mapper HandlerMapping Return to the front controller Handler,HandlerMapping Will map the request to HandlerExecutionChain object ( Contains a Handler processor ( Page controller ) object , Multiple HandlerInterceptor Interceptor object ), Through this strategic model , It's easy to add new mapping strategies
  4. The front-end controller calls the processor adapter to execute Handler
  5. Processor adapter HandlerAdapter It will be executed according to the result of adaptation Handler
  6. Handler Execution complete returns... To the adapter ModelAndView
  7. The processor adapter returns... To the front controller ModelAndViewModelAndView yes springmvc One of the underlying objects of the framework , Include Model and view
  8. The front-end controller requests the view parser to parse the view ( Resolves to the real view according to the logical view name (jsp)), It's easy to change other view technologies through this strategy , Just change the view parser
  9. The view parser returns... To the front controller View
  10. The front controller renders the view ( View rendering will model data ( stay ModelAndView In the object ) Fill in request Domain )
  11. The front controller responds to the user's results

advantage :

  • MVC It's a very good collaboration model , It can effectively reduce the coupling degree of code , From the perspective of architecture, developers can understand where the code should be written . In order to make View More pure , You can also use ThymeleafFreemarker And the template engine , Make it impossible to write in the template Java Code , Make the division of labor between the front end and the back end clearer . Single application !

shortcoming :

Front end development relies heavily on development environment , Low development efficiency , Under this structure , There are two modes of front-end and back-end collaboration :

  • The first is front-end writing DEMO, After writing , Let the back end cover the template . The advantage is DEMO It can be developed locally , Very efficient . The disadvantage is You also need a back-end template , It's possible to get it wrong , It needs to be confirmed by the front end , It costs a lot to communicate back and forth ;
  • Another collaboration mode is that the front end is responsible for all the development of the browser side and the server side View Layer template development . The advantage is UI dependent The code is written by the front end , Don't pay too much attention to the back end , The disadvantage is that the front-end development is heavily bound to the back-end environment , The environment becomes the front end of the impact It's an important factor in efficiency .

The responsibilities of the front and back are intertwined : The template engine is powerful , You can still implement various business logic through the context variables you get . But this way, as long as the front end is weak , Often will be back-end requirements in the template layer to write a lot of business code . There is also a big gray area , Page routing and other functions should be the most concerned of the front end , But it's implemented by the back end .

4.1 ajax Era

Time to go back to 2005 year AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML, asynchronous JavaScript and XML, Old technology, new usage ) Was formally proposed and put into use CDN As a static resource store , And there it is JavaScript Return of the king ( before this JS It's all used to post dog skin plaster advertisements on the website ) Of SPA(Single Page Application) Single page application era .

advantage :

  • In this mode , The division of labor at the front and back is very clear , The key collaboration point at the front and back is AJAX Interface . It looks so wonderful , But if you look back , This is related to JSP There is little difference in times . The complexity comes from the server side JSP Moved to the browser's JavaScript, browser The end becomes very complicated . similar Spring MVC, In this era, the layered architecture of browser began to appear :
     Insert picture description here

shortcoming :

  • Conventions of front and back interfaces : If the back-end interface is a mess , If the back-end business model is not stable enough , So front end development will be very Pain ; Many teams have tried to do the same , Through interface rules 、 Interface platform and so on . With the back end precipitated together Interface The rules , It can also be used to simulate data , So that the front and back end can achieve efficient parallel development after the interface is agreed .
  • Complexity control of front-end development : SPA Most applications are functional interactive ,JavaScript Code over 100000 lines is normal . A lot of JS Organization of code , And View Layer binding, etc , It's not easy

4.2 Front end oriented MV* Time

Here MV The pattern is as follows :*

  • MVC( Synchronous communication ): Model、View、Controller
  • MVP( Asynchronous communication ): Model、View、Presenter
  • MVVM( Asynchronous communication ): Model、View、ViewModel

To reduce the complexity of front-end development , A lot of front-end frameworks have sprung up , such as : AngularJS 、 React 、Vue.js 、 EmberJS etc. , The general principle of these frameworks is to stratify by type first , such as Templates、Controllers、Models, And then do the segmentation in the layer , Here's the picture :
 Insert picture description here

advantage :

  • The front and back responsibilities are clear : The front end works on the browser side , The back end works on the server . Clear division of labor , You can make development parallel , measuring It's not difficult to simulate the test data , The front end can be developed locally . The back end can focus on the processing of business logic , Output RESTful Equijunction mouth .
  • The complexity of front end development is controllable : The front-end code is heavy , But reasonable stratification , Let the front-end code do its job . This one is very interesting Of , Simple as the selection of template features , There are a lot of things to pay attention to . It's not that the stronger the better , What limits , What freedom is left , generation How the code should be organized , All this design , It takes the thickness of a book to explain .
  • Deployment is relatively independent : Can quickly improve the product experience

shortcoming :

  • Code cannot be reused : For example, the back end still needs to do all kinds of verification on the data , Verification logic cannot reuse browser side code . If you can To reuse , So the back-end data verification can be relatively simple .
  • The asynchronous , Yes SEO adverse : The server is often required to do synchronous rendering degradation scheme . Performance is not the best , Especially in the mobile Internet environment .
  • SPA Can't meet all the needs :, There are still a lot of multi page applications .URL Design Need back-end cooperation , The front end doesn't have full control .

4.3 NodeJS The era of the whole stack

Front end oriented MV* Patterns solve a lot of problems , But as mentioned above , There are still many shortcomings . With NodeJS The joy of rise ,JavaScript Start to have the ability to run on the server . This means that there can be a new R & D model :
 Insert picture description here

In this R & D model , The responsibilities of the front and back end are clear . For the front end , Two UI Each layer performs its duties :

  • Front-end UI layer Handle the presentation logic of the browser layer . adopt CSS Rendering style , adopt JavaScript Add interactive work can ,HTML The generation of can also be put on this layer , See the application scenario .
  • Back-end UI layer Processing route 、 Templates 、 Data acquisition 、Cookie etc. . By routing , The front end can finally control itself URL Design, In this way, whether it is a single page application or a multi page application , The front end can be adjusted freely . The back end can finally get rid of A strong focus on presentation , Instead, you can focus on the development of the business logic layer .

adopt Node,Web Server So are the layers JavaScript Code , This means that part of the code can be reused back and forth , need SEO The scene of the scene can be To render synchronously on the server side , The performance problems caused by too many asynchronous requests can also be alleviated by the server . Shortcomings of the former model , Almost all of them can be solved perfectly through this mode .

And JSP Compared to model , Full stack mode seems to be a return , It is indeed a return to the original development mode , It's just a spiral Upward regression .

be based on NodeJS Full stack mode of , There are still many challenges :

  • We need the front end to have a further understanding of the server side programming . such as TCP/IP And so on network knowledge grasps .
  • NodeJS Layer and Java Efficient communication between layers .NodeJS In mode , All on the server side ,RESTful HTTP Communication may not be efficient , adopt SOAP And so on . Everything needs to move forward in validation .
  • For deployment 、 Proficiency in operation and maintenance , Need more knowledge and practical experience .
  • A large number of problems left over by history, how to make the transition . It's probably the biggest resistance .

5.MVVM Model generation

  • **MVVM(Model-View-ViewModel)** It's a software architecture design pattern , From Microsoft WPF( Used in substitution WinForm, With I used this technology to develop desktop applications ) and Silverlight( Be similar to Java Applet, Simply put, it's on the browser Running WPF) Architect Ken Cooper and Ted Peters Development , It's an event driven programming that simplifies the user interface . from John Gossman( also WPF and Silverlight Architect ) On 2005 Published on his blog in .

MVVM From the classic MVC(Model-View-Controller) Pattern .MVVM The core is ViewModel layer , Responsible for transferring in Model Data objects in to make data easier to manage and use , Its functions are as follows :

  • This layer carries out bidirectional data binding with the view layer upward
  • Down and Model Layer through the interface request data interaction
     Insert picture description here

MVVM It's quite mature , Now popular MVVM Framework has Vue.js , AngularJS etc. .

Why use MVVM Pattern ?

The essence of all architectures is to decouple !

MVVM Patterns and MVC Model as , The main purpose is to separate views (View) And models (Model), There are several benefits :

  • Low coupling : View (View) Can be independent of Model Changes and modifications , One ViewModel Can be bound to different View On , When View When it changes Model It can be the same , When Model When it changes View It can be the same .
  • Reusable : You can put some view logic in one ViewModel Inside , Let a lot of View Reuse this view logic .
  • Independent development : Developers can focus on the development of business logic and data (ViewModel), Designers can focus on pages Surface design .
  • Testable : The interface is always more difficult to test , And now the test can target ViewModel To write .

mvvm The overall structure of :
 Insert picture description here

View: View Is the view layer , That's the user interface . The front end is mainly composed of HTML and CSS To build , To make it easier to show ViewModel perhaps Model Layer data , Various front-end and back-end template languages have emerged , such as FreeMarker、 Thymeleaf wait , The major MVVM The frame is like Vue.js,AngularJS,EJS And so on have their own built-in for building user interfaces Template language .

Model: Model Data model , It generally refers to various business logic processing and data manipulation carried out by the back end , Mainly around the database system . The difficulty here mainly lies in the need to unify with the front-end agreement Interface rules

ViewModel: ViewModel It is the view data layer generated and maintained by the front-end developers . In this layer , Front end developers get from the back end Model Data conversion processing , Make secondary packaging , To generate compliance View Layer uses the expected view data model .

It should be noted that ViewModel The encapsulated data model includes two parts: view state and view behavior , and Model Layer's data model is state only .

  • For example, what is displayed in this section of the page , What is shown in that block belongs to the view state ( Exhibition )
  • What happens when the page loads in , What happens when you click on this piece , What happens when this piece is scrolling is a view behavior ( hand over mutual )

View state and behavior are encapsulated in ViewModel in . Such packaging enables ViewModel It can be described completely View layer .

Thanks to bidirectional binding ,ViewModel The content of will be displayed in real time View layer , In this way, the front-end developers no longer have to operate inefficiently and troublesome DOM To update the view .

MVVM The frame has made the dirtiest and most tired piece , We developers only need to deal with and maintain ViewModel, Update the data and the view will be automatically updated accordingly , Real event driven programming .

View Layers don't show Model Layer data , It is ViewModel The data of , from ViewModel Responsible for working with Model Layer interaction , This is completely decoupled View Layer and the Model layer , This decoupling is critical , It is an important part of the implementation of the front and rear end separation scheme .

6. summary

In the early days of the Internet, there was no concept of front end and back end , Almost all the work is done by the background developers , Later, the view layer technology developed better and better , Rendering support for pages is getting better and better , A front-end developer focused on view layer technology was born . In the tide of the times, if we still stay in a single technical level , Inevitably, the market and vision become narrow , So the whole stack theory has been put on the agenda of many developers , It is the so-called general trend of the world Long period of division , A long time must be divided. , So it's time to study the front end of learning !

本文为[Yang Linwei]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢

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