Dubbo's past and present life

roshilikang 2021-09-15 04:25:01
dubbo present life

This article has been included https://github.com/lkxiaolou/lkxiaolou welcome star.


A long time ago , Website application is the architecture of single application , The flow is small , All functions 、 The code is all deployed together , The cost is low . At this point, the database access framework ORM Is the key .

Later, the flow gradually increased , The single application is divided into several unrelated applications , This is the Vertical Architecture , At this time, the development of the front-end page is accelerated Web frame MVC Is the key .

later , Vertical applications are growing , Interaction between applications is inevitable , Distributed service framework RPC It became the key .


RPC, Full name Remote Procedure Call, Remote procedure call , In a word, calling remote objects is as convenient and simple as calling local methods . common RPC Framework has dubbo、grpc、thrift etc. .

dubbo, |ˈdʌbəʊ| It's a high performance 、 Lightweight open source Java RPC frame , It provides three core competencies : Interface oriented remote method call , Intelligent fault tolerance and load balancing , And automatic service registration and discovery . Currently in use dubbo There are so many companies .

All men are mortal

dubbo The course of development can be summarized as 3 Stages :

  • The birth of Ali :dubbo Previous life 2008 It was born inside Ali in ,2011 In open source ,2012 Released in 2.5.3 Stop updating after version
  • We should continue our life :2014 Dangdang released dubbox, It's based on Alibaba open source dubbo 2.5.3 Version added rest Agreed dubbo edition
  • Restart the summit apache:2017 In 1997, Ali was rebooted dubbo project , And in 2018 in apache incubation ,2019 Become a year apache Top projects , It also released dubbo.js,dubbo-go Wait for multiple languages dubbo edition ,2020 Released in 3.0 A strategic plan for the development of cloud based projects

The main versions currently supported are 2.6.x and 2.7.x:

  • 2.6.x Mainly with bugfix And a small amount enhancements Mainly , So it can guarantee the stability completely
  • 2.7.x As the main development version of the community , Get continuous updates and add a lot of new feature And optimization , It also brings some stability challenges


dubbo The native protocol is defined as follows :

  • 0-15: magic number , Judge whether it is dubbo agreement
  • 16: Decide whether to request or return
  • 17: Determine whether you expect to return
  • 18: Determine whether it is an event message , Like a heartbeat event
  • 19-23: Serialization flag
  • 24-31: Flag response status ( similar http status)
  • 32-63: request id
  • 64-95: The length of the content ( byte )
  • 96-?: Serialized content ( Newline separator )

dubbo The advantage of the protocol is its compact design 、 Request response header Agreement ; The disadvantage is that you can't pass header Location resources ,header and body There is redundancy in the fields , The agreement cannot be extended .

Of course, it also supports the extension of multiple protocols , As Dangdang expanded rest agreement , And the latest support grpc Agreements, etc

When it comes to expansion , May be dubbo The highlight of design ,dubbo The extension of is based on SPI(Service Provide Interface) Design , Can be non intrusive code to achieve a lot of functions .

Registry Center

The registry has the following characteristics :

  • Dynamic join , Service providers dynamically expose themselves to consumers through the registry , No need for consumers to update profiles one by one .
  • Dynamic discovery services , Consumers can dynamically discover new services , No need to restart to take effect .
  • Unified configuration , Avoid the inconsistency of each service configuration caused by local configuration .
  • Dynamic adjustment , Registry supports dynamic parameter adjustment , The new parameters are automatically updated to all relevant service nodes .
  • Unified management , Rely on registry data , Service nodes can be managed and configured uniformly .dubbo Mainstream registries generally use zookeeper perhaps nacos, There are many other extension implementations .


The cluster contains routing 、 Load balancing and cluster fault tolerance , Let's look at the differences in these three aspects from an example :

One dubbo User services for , Deployed in Beijing 10 individual , Deployed in Shanghai 20 individual . A service consumer in Hangzhou initiated a call , And then the following happened :

  1. According to the configured routing rules , If Hangzhou initiated the call , It will be routed to the nearest Shanghai 20 individual provider.
  2. According to the configured random load balancing strategy , stay 20 individual provider Randomly selected one to call
  3. Let's say it's random 7 individual provider. As a result, call the second 7 individual provider failed . configurable failover Cluster fault tolerant mode , Retry other servers . Tried the second time again 13 individual provider, Successful call . here 1 Corresponding to the route ,2 Corresponding to load balancing ,3 Corresponding to cluster fault tolerance .


stay dubbo In the overall design of ,filter It's a very important concept , Include dubbo Most of its functions , All are based on this extension point , During each call ,filter All interceptions will be executed .filter It's a design pattern of responsibility chain :

common filter: Monitoring and management 、 logging 、 Current limiting the drop 、 Authentication etc. .

Three centers

The three centers refer to the registration centers , Metadata Center , Configuration center . Why three centers are needed , You can see one dubbo Data registered in the registry :


You can see that there's a lot of data , It's also interface level data , When there are more and more interfaces , There's more and more pressure on the registry , More and more data is being pushed by change .

therefore , We need metadata center and configuration center to relieve the pressure of registry . Infrequently changing data can be placed in the metadata Center .


So is the configuration center , If there is no configuration center, the full amount will be changed url Push it down , With the configuration center, you just need to push the changed configuration .

Generalization call

Our common dubbo The calling method is to introduce provider Defined interfaces jar package , But without this jar package , Can I initiate a call ? Yes, of course , There are scenes like this , For example, service testing platform ,dubbo Service gateway, etc . Just know the interface name , Parameters and other information can be called .

The future development

dubbo At that time, the future planning actually took a curve , It's not a single step to the original direction of the cloud .2019 I want to go in the direction of responsive programming ( Or reactive programming ).IO Intensive application , In general, thread pool is one of the important factors limiting throughput , hypothesis consumer Thread pool is 100,provider The response time of the interface is 500ms,consumer Of qps Cap of (1000 / 500) x 100 = 200. Responsive programming is the solution to this problem .

Responsive programming (reactive programming) It's based on data flow (data stream) And the transmission of change (propagation of change) The declarative form of (declarative) Programming paradigm .RSocket It's a support reactive-stream Semantic open source network communication protocol , It will reactive The complex logic of semantics is encapsulated , So that the upper layer can easily realize the network program .Dubbo stay 3.0.0-SNAPSHOT The version is based on RSocket Support for responsive programming , Users can use it in request parameters and return values Mono and Flux Object of type .

But in the 2020 year , With the rise of cloud native concept and the landing of large factories one after another ,dubbo Can it also develop in this direction ?

Cloud nativity is based on containers 、 Service Grid 、 Microservices 、 Immutable infrastructure and declarative API Build flexible and scalable applications , Based on automation technology to build with high fault tolerance 、 A loosely coupled system that is easy to manage and easy to observe , Build a unified open source cloud technology ecosystem , It can be decoupled from the services provided by cloud vendors .

dubbo Service level registration discovery for , And k8s Application level service discovery of container choreography violates ,dubbo yes “ heavy sdk”, Contrary to easy management .

So in the latest version, application level service discovery is supported , It used to be such an interface :


Using application level service discovery to register with the registry is like this


And heavy sdk, The future may be mesh improve , It is said that Ali already has dubbo mesh It's a new line of business .

WeChat official account " Master bug catcher ", Back end technology sharing , Architecture design 、 performance optimization 、 Source code reading 、 Troubleshoot problems 、 Step on the pit practice .


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