[Linux application] San (storage area network) technology

ToToSun 2022-06-23 18:29:54 阅读数:487


1. Preface

At present, the professional storage schemes used by the server include DAS、NAS、SAN、iSCSI several .
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2.NAS and SAN Different

NAS: User pass TCP/IP Protocol access data , Adopt industry standard file sharing protocols such as :NFS、HTTP、CIFS Share .
SAN: Access data through a dedicated fibre channel switch , use SCSI、FC-AL Interface .

NAS and SAN The fundamental difference between :

 SAN In structure , File management system (FS) Or on each application server ;
NAS Each application server uses the network sharing protocol ( Such as :NFS、CIFS) Using the same file management system .
namely :NAS and SAN The difference between storage systems is NAS Has its own file system management .

NAS Focus on the application 、 Users and files and the data they share .
SAN Is to focus on the disk 、 Tapes and the reliable infrastructure that connects them .

3.SAN Storage

SAN It's actually a dedicated storage independent TCP/IP Private networks outside the network . At present, the general SAN Provide 2Gb/S To 4Gb/S Transmission rate of , meanwhile SAN Networks exist independently of data networks , So access speed is very fast , in addition SAN Generally, high end RAID array , send SAN In several professional storage solutions .
SAN Because it's based on a private network , So it's very scalable , Whether it's in one SAN It is very convenient to add a certain amount of storage space or several servers using storage space in the system . adopt SAN Interface of the tape drive ,SAN The system can realize the centralized backup of data conveniently and efficiently .
SAN As a new storage method , Is the future development direction of storage technology , however , It also has some disadvantages :

 (1) Expensive . Whether it's SAN Array cabinet or SAN The necessary fibre channel switches are very expensive , Even the price of the optical channel card used on the server is not easy to be accepted by small commercial enterprises ;
(2) You need to set up a separate optical network , It is difficult to expand in different places ;

4.SAN characteristic

SAN The storage network architecture is mainly divided into FC-SAN and IP-SAN Two kinds of . In the early SAN Usually refers to a storage area network using fibre channel technology , wait until iSCSI After the agreement appeared , The storage industry puts SAN Divided into two , One is FC-SAN and IP-SAN.


The optical fiber is used as the transmission medium in the architecture FC-SAN The advantage of is the transmission speed block ( Can be up to 4G/s)、 Long distance and high reliability .
FC-SAN There are five port types :N type 、NL type 、F type 、FL type 、 as well as E type . The first two apply to hosts and storage devices , The last three are applicable to fiber switch .
As a reliable SAN Core equipment , The fiber switch with dual redundancy configuration has reliable stability and security , yes FC-SAN The core components of . Each server is connected to redundant servers through two fibre channels SAN On fibre channel switches . Allied , Disk array devices and SAN Fibre channel switches are also connected through two fibre channels . The high-speed connection structure of automatic backup software backup can realize fast backup and recovery 、 Data access and disaster recovery , Allows users to quickly transfer data to storage backup devices .
FC-SAN Provides a high performance 、 Reliable and economical solutions , Store industry-leading servers 、 The storage device 、 The software and networking functions are integrated .

4.2 IP-SAN

IP-SAN It means to realize the data in the network SCSI Package serial , It can support the backup and disaster recovery of enterprise data 、 Establishment of data center , It is divided into FCP、FCIP and iSCSI.
iFCP Can achieve FC-SAN To IP-SAN Seamless connection of , By switching FC Frame protocol , Add the pure data that has been parsed and stripped of the data package TCP/IP agreement , therefore iFCP Only have IP Address .FCIP hold FC Frame encapsulation to IP In the packet , bring IP The data package contains FC Address , Yes, it includes IP Address ,FCIP The technology is suitable for long-distance isolated FC_SAN The interconnection between .iSCSI It can be realized in the common IP Direct transmission over the network SCSI Data packets , By way of TCP/IP Accession to the agreement SCSI Packets to use IP Detection equipment and addressing mechanism and TCP Segmentation and traffic congestion control mechanism in .

4.3 IP-SAN and FC_SAN contrast

comparison IP_SAN,FC-SAN It has advantages in the stability and scalability of the equipment , But more responsible and expensive , Not suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises , and IP_SAN The price is low , It's easy to operate , Realize remote mirroring and migration of data without distance limitation , It is more helpful for cross platform data sharing .

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